Alauddin Khalji was the Sultan of Delhi and among the most formidable rulers of the Khalji dynasty. He assassinated his father-in-law and strengthened his authority in Delhi.
The Indian imperial kingdom was only established by the one and only Muslim emperor, Alauddin Khilji. Beyond the Vindhyas and all the way to the Deccan, he expanded the sultanate of Delhi’s borders by conquering numerous Indian kingdoms.
History has commended Alauddin’s rule for its low pricing and effective market supply of products and services. He had a very effective administrative strategy. More than 12 times, he successfully defied the danger of Mongol invasions. South India was initially attacked by the Khilji dynasty’s Sultanate of Alauddin Khilji.
This article will walk you over the history of Alauddin Khilji of the Khilji dynasty which will be of immense help for preparing for the UPSC exam.
- Who Was Alauddin Khilji?
- Invasion Of Mongol
- Alaudin Khilji’s reign
- Administrative And Domestic Policies
- Market Reforms
- Modifications To The Levy System
- Estimate And Architecture
- End Of Khilji Dynasty
Who Was Alauddin Khilji?
- Ali Gurshasp was Alauddin Khilji’s given name at birth.
- He was Shihabuddin Mas’ud’s oldest son.
- After Shihabuddin’s passing, Jalaluddin raised Alauddin.
- The founder of the Khalji dynasty, Sultan Jalaluddin, had an older brother named Shihabuddin Mas’ud.
- He as well as Almas Beg (younger brother of Alauddin) wed the daughters of Jalaluddin.
- Upon Jalaluddin’s succession to the crown of Delhi, Alauddin was designated Amir-i-Tuzuk, and Almas Beg was given the rank of Akhur-beg.
- Ala-ud-din Khilji wears the crown after Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji in 1296 AD.
- To get his people, nobles, and ministers to forget about Jalal-ud-din’s murder and support him, he lavishly distributed money and gold to them.
- Malik Kafur is believed to have poisoned Ala-ud-din Khilji, according to rumors.
- In January 1316, he passed away.
- Shihabuddin Omar succeeded him.
Invasion Of Mongol
More than 12 times, Ala-ud-din was able to effectively repel a Mongol invasion.
Alaudin Khilji’s reign
He started conquering numerous kingdoms after gaining the crown of Delhi. His various annexations are listed below:
- Upon taking power, he launched his first army assault.
- Even before ascending to the throne, he was aware of Gujarat’s poor economic condition; as a result, he thought it would be highly practical to attack Gujarat.
- During this period, “Karna” was the emperor of Gujarat.
- Fearing this attack, Karna escaped to Devagiri, a region of Maharashtra with his family to safeguard them.
- But as they were traveling, Alauddin had Deval Devi (daughter of Karna) wed to Khijr Khan after she had been apprehended.
- The slave Malik Kafur, who meet with Alauddin at this location, was crucial to the growth of the latter’s dominion.
- Gujarat was taken by Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan, two of Ala-ud-din Khiliji’s generals.
- The Chauhan dynasty governed it and Hamir Dev was the ruler at that time.
- The then Ruler of the Chauhan dynasty provided shelter to “new Muslims”. Alauddin did not like this, so he launched an attack against Ranthambore.
- Alauddin triumphed over Hamir Deva in this conflict.
- In this combat, one among his main sardars, “Nusrat Khan,” was killed.
- Because it was in the way of a commercial route to Gujarat, Chittor was conquered.
- Alauddin had the assistance of the renowned Sufi poet and scholar Amir Khusrow during this conflict.
- After this triumph, the fort was given the new name of Khijrabad.
- Khijr Khan, the son of Alauddin, served as its inspiration for naming.
- Furthermore, he took Marwar, Malwa, Dhar, Mandu, Chittor, Ujjain, Chanderi and Jalor into his possession.
After that, he began his growth in South India.
- Ramdev, a king of the Yadav dynasty, governed during this time.
- Ramdev’s refusal to pay Alauddin’s annual tax led to an assault on the empire of Devgiri.
- Ramdev was carried to Delhi, where he ultimately gave himself up.
- Pratap Rudra Dev, the regional emperor, was the monarch of the dynasty named Kakatiya.
- His empire was incredibly wealthy, which eventually led to Alauddin’s attack.
- He embraced Alauddin’s reign and gave him the Kohinoor diamond.
- Vira Ballala-III, the Hoysala ruler, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Prataprudra-II of Warangal were all vanquished.
- Geographically, it was located on the state of Karnataka’s west coast.
- Ballal III of the Hoysala dynasty governed it.
- It was governed by the Pandya dynasty under the reign of Sundar as well as Vir Pandya.
- Sundar Pandya and Vir Pandya got into a dispute.
- Alauddin was approached for assistance by Sundar Pandya throughout this course.
- Together with Alauddin, Sundar Pandya defeated Vir Pandya.
- Alauddin’s rule was also accepted by Sundar Pandya.
Malik Kafur served as the commander of all South Indian Triumphs.
The southern kingdoms recognized Alauddin Khilji’s dominance and gave him monetary tributes.
Administrative And Domestic Policies
- Ala-ud-din adhered to the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
- In order to stop recurring uprisings, he enacted four ordinances.
- He held onto free grants of lands and pious grants.
- He completely redesigned the spy mechanism.
- He outlawed drinking wine and attending social gatherings.
- He instituted a perpetual standing army.
- He was the first recorded king to institute a system of horse tainting and a precise descriptive roster of individual soldiers to prevent corruption.
- He set the pricing of essential goods below the normal market rates.
- He exclusively advocated for the outlawed of black marketing.
- Revenue was collected under his rule in cash rather than in kind, in contrast to earlier kings.
- He placed the Jizya, a grazing tax, and a housing tax on the Hindu community, and he rigidly followed policies that were discriminatory against them.
- The Sultan was at the top of the chain of command. The Ulemas, or Muslim divines, had a significant role in the formulation of policy under earlier Muslim kings who governed in accordance with Koranic principles.
- Initially, Ala-ud-din Khilji instituted a cash-only method of paying soldiers.
- Because troops received lower pay, prices had to be monitored and controlled.
- To control the price of essential commodities, he set up a complex intelligence network to gather data on stockpiling and black selling.
- To standardize the market, officers known as Diwan-i-Riyasat were selected in the Shahana-i-mandi offices.
- Before selling their products at the set prices, he ensured to it that all the market-interested merchants registered in Shahana-i-mandi.
- Shahana-i-mandi, the market’s supervisor, kept an eye on the costs of essential goods.
Views Of Amir Khusrau And Barani On Economic Reforms
For a number of market items, Alauddin put in place price control methods.
- Amir Khusrau, an advisor to Alauddin, and the author Hamid Qalandar, who lived in the 14th century, both assert that Alauddin made these measures for the benefit of the populace.
- However, according to Barani, Alauddin sought to lower the costs so that his soldiers would accept poor salaries and keep up a sizable army. Barani further asserts that Hindu traders engaged in plundering and that Alauddin’s market reforms were a result of the Sultan’s intention to punish Hindus.
Modifications To The Levy System
- Alauddin founded Diwan-i-Muskharaj, a distinct revenue organization.
- He formulated a scientific approach for estimating land revenue and measuring acreage.
- Jaziya was compelled upon non-Muslims.
- Ulemas, sardars, and jagirdars all had to pay heavy taxes.
Estimate And Architecture
- Ala-ud-din Khilji introduced a standing army structure for the first time under the Khilji Dynasty.
- He constructed the renowned Siri Fort, the Palace of a Thousand Pillars, and Alai Darwaza.
- Alauddin built the 70-acre Hauz-i-Alai (eventually Hauz-i-Khas) water reservoir in1296. This water reservoir provided water supply for the entire year to the city, as per Timur’s autobiographical chronicles, who conquered Delhi in 1398.
- In addition, he began work on the Alai Minar, whose size was planned to be twice that of the Qutb Minar. However, the project was likely halted when he passed away.
- Due to similarities in architecture and design between it and the Alai Darwaza, the Lal Mahal (Red Palace) which is a sandstone edifice at Chausath Khamba was also credited to Alauddin.
End Of Khilji Dynasty
- 1316 AD marked Khilji’s demise.
- Ala-ud-din Khilji’s successors were weak rulers.
- Finally, under the direction of a group of nobles, the Ruler of Punjab, Ghazi Malik, took control of Delhi in 1320 AD and seized the crown.
- In Delhi, Ghazi Malik adopted the name ‘Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’ and put in place the Tughluq Dynasty.
To defend his domain, Ala-ud-din Khilji possessed a sizable and potent standing army. He implemented a method of branding of horses (dagh) and the maintenance of a thorough record of soldiers to prevent false musters and unethical behavior. The Jagir system was eliminated by Alauddin, who instituted a cash payment method in its place. He became the first Muslim emperor to successfully invade and subjugate southern India. He defeated the monarchs in each battle he engaged in South India. In particular, the commander’s Malik Kafur and Khubrav Khan supported him in his attempt to overthrow the emperor.
How Does Alauddin Khilji Prevent The Black Market?
His administration built government-run granaries where the government’s part of the grain was stored in order to prevent the development of a black market. Peasants and traders were also forbidden from storing the grains there.
How Alauddin Khilji Implement Price Control?
Alauddin organized the following separate markets in Delhi to undertake price control measures:
1. In addition to grocery stores in each neighborhood, Mandi is the main grain marketplace.
2. The primary marketplace for finished goods and imported items are Sera-i Adl.
3. Slave and animal markets
4. Other commodity markets are also present
Who Succeded Alauddin Khilji?
He was succeeded by Shihabuddin Omar (ruled in 1316), Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah who ruled from 1316 to 1320 A.D., and Khusrau khan ruled in 1320 A.D.