The last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty, Nasir ud din Mahmud Shah TughlUq (ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1394 –1413 CE), son of sultan Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Shah III is an important historical figure in India’s history. His reign over the Islamic Delhi Sultanate was notable for many reasons.
Here, you’ll discover the life of this famous Muslim ruler. Also, you’ll read about his war of succession with Nusrat Shah and the Invasion of Timur during his reign. This article will be worth reading for the UPSC CSE Exam preparation. This belongs to the Medieval Indian History of UPSC Syllabus.
Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq- Background
The final monarch of the Tughlaq dynasty to reign the Islamic Delhi Sultanate was Nasir ud din Mahmud Shah Tughluq. His other name was Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah. Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the third longest-serving ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty after Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq & Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah replaced Alauddin Sikandar shah, who died soon due to illness, to become Sultan of Delhi Sultanate. He appointed Malik Sarwar, who founded the Sharqi dynasty, as a governor of Jaunpur and bestowed the title “Malik-us-Sharq”.
Reign Of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
The Reign of Nasir-ud din Mahmud Shah Tughluq began in 1394 and ended in 1413 AD. Its end was not unexpected, because the ruler had no surviving children. Mahmud had been brought to the throne by nobles after his father’s death. The Sultanate suffered several setbacks during this period, including the invasion of Timur.
War Of Succession
After the death of sultan Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III, his older son Ala ud-din Sikandar Shah became his successor, but his reign couldn’t be so long due to illness, he died very soon. He was succeeded by Nasiruddin Mahmud shah. His succession was challenged by Nusrat Shah(Nasrat Khan). This war lasted over 3 years from 1394 until 1397 CE.
To know more about Nasir Ud Din Muhammad Shah III explore the linked article.
In that era, Nasir ud din Mahmud Shah Tughluq reigned from Delhi and Nusrat Shah governed from Firozabad.
Invasion Of Timur
When Nasir ud din Mahmud Shah Tughluq was in power in1398, Timur invaded northern India. Invading from Central Asia, Timur crossed the Indus River near Attock. He captured Delhi, destroying its population and taking substantial treasures from the court of the Sultanate of Delhi, which had been accumulated over two hundred years by the Turco-Afghan rulers. However, Timur’s invasion also triggered a decline in the Tughlaq dynasty and marked the end of the Tughlaq dynastical power.
In 1413 CE Nasiruddin muhammad shah died. After this, the Tughlaq Dynasty collapsed and Islamic Delhi went in hands of Sayyid Khizr Khan from the Sayyid dynasty. Chagatai Ruler Timur himself appointed Khizr Khan, as the sultan of Delhi, who was earlier governor of Multan.
Nasir ud din Mahmud Shah Tughluq ruled over the Islamic capital of Delhi for nearly 19 years. Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah’s reign has seen great upheaval. The war of succession between him & Nusrat khan resulted in a civil war in his kingdom. There was anarchy and disorder during this phase. What was left is distorted by Timur’s invasion. The period’s unrest and constant wars paved the way for the rise of the Sayyid dynasty.
Who Was The Last Ruler Of The Tughlaq Dynasty?
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (1394 – 1413 CE) was the last ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate.
Timur Invaded India During Whose Reign?
Timur invaded India in 1398 CE in reign of Nasiruddin Mahmud shah tughluq.
What Was The Reason For The Decline Of The Tughluq Dynasty?
The War of succession between Turkic ruler Nasiruddin Mahmud shah & Nusrat shah initiated anarchy in his kingdom. This followed the Timur invasion in 1398 CE, which resulted in the decline of the Tughluq dynasty.