Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq

nasir ud din mahmud shah tughluq

The last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty, Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1394 –1413 CE), son of Sultan Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Shah III is an important historical figure in India’s history. His reign over the Islamic Delhi Sultanate was notable for many reasons.

In this blog, you’ll discover the life of this famous Muslim ruler. Also, you’ll read about his war of succession with Nusrat Shah and the invasion of Timur during his reign. This article will be worth reading for the UPSC CSE Exam preparation. This belongs to the Medieval Indian History of UPSC syllabus.

Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq: Background

The final monarch of the Tughlaq dynasty to reign the Islamic Delhi Sultanate was Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq. His other name was Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah.

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the third longest-serving ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty after Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.

Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah replaced Alauddin Sikandar Shah, who soon died due to illness, to become Sultan of Delhi Sultanate. He appointed Malik Sarwar, who founded the Sharqi dynasty, as a governor of Jaunpur and bestowed the title “Malik-us-Sharq”.

Related Reading: Ghiyas Ud Din Tughlaq

Reign of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah

The reign of Sultan Nasir Ud ­Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq began in 1394 and ended in 1413 AD. Its end was not unexpected, because the ruler had no surviving children.

Mahmud had been brought to the throne by nobles after his father’s death. The Sultanate suffered several setbacks during this period, including the invasion of Timur.

War of Succession

After the death of Sultan Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah III, his older son Ala Ud-Din Sikandar Shah became his successor, but his reign couldn’t be so long due to illness, he died very soon.

He was succeeded by Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah. Nusrat Shah contested his succession.

Nusrat Shah was also known by the name of Nasrat Khan. This three-year succession battle lasted from 1394 until 1397.

In that era, Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq reigned from Delhi and Nusrat Shah governed from Firozabad.

Invasion of Timur

When Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq was in power in 1398, Amir Timur invaded northern India. Invading from Central Asia, Timur crossed the Indus River near Attock.

He captured Delhi, destroying its population and taking substantial treasures from the court of the Sultanate of Delhi, which had been accumulated over two hundred years by the Turco-Afghan rulers.

However, Timur’s invasion also triggered a decline in the Tughlaq dynasty and marked the end of the Tughlaq dynastical power.


In February, 1413 CE, Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah died. After this, the Tughlaq Dynasty collapsed and Islamic Delhi went in hands of Sayyid Khizr Khan from the Sayyid dynasty.

Chagatai Ruler Timur himself appointed Khizr Khan, as the Sultan of Delhi. He was earlier the governor of Multan.

Also Read: Ghiyath Ud Din Tughluq Shah II


Through this blog for UPSC preparation, you learnt that Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq ruled over the Islamic capital of Delhi for nearly 19 years. Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah’s reign has seen great upheaval.

The war of succession between him & Nusrat Khan resulted in a civil war in his kingdom. There was anarchy and disorder during this phase. What was left was distorted by Timur’s invasion.

Failing to prove a competent ruler, Nasir-Ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq’s reign witnessed unrest and constant wars paved the way for the rise of the Sayyid dynasty.


Who was the last ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty?

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the last ruler of the Tughlaq ruler of his dynasty.

How long did Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah’s reign last?

March, 1394 – February, 1413 CE

During whose reign did Amir Timur invade India?

Timur invaded India in 1398 CE. His invasion occurred during the reign of Nasir Ud Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq.

What was the reason for the decline of the Tuglaq dynasty?

The war of succession between Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah and Nusrat Shah initiated anarchy in his kingdom. This was followed by Timur’s invasion in 1398 CE, which resulted in the decline of the Tuglaq dynasty.

Who succeeded Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah?

Khizr Khan

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