Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller In India

abdur razzaq persian traveller in india

Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller in India was the son of Jalal-ud-Din Ishaq who was born in the year 1413 at Herat. If you’re looking for fascinating biographies of famous 15th-century travelers it will be perfect to start with Abdur Razzaq.

The Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller is a diplomat of the Shah Rukh in Persia and was one among numerous famous travellers to visit India in 1442. He witnessed political and military events in Samarqand and Herat. He wrote a 45-page travelogue about his experiences, which includes first-hand accounts of the lives of common people in Calicut and the events that took place in the Ancient City of Vijayanagar at Hampi. 

An ambassador from Herat named Abdur Razzaq Samarqandi provided one of the most significant descriptions of the Vijayanagar Empire in the fifteenth century.

We shall talk more about Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller in India in this section since it will help us comprehend how foreigners in ancient times saw India. The UPSC Civil Service candidates would find this material helpful in thoroughly examining India through the perspective of Foreign Travellers.

Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller In India – Personal Background

  1. Abdur Razzaq’s father was Jalal-ud-Din Ishaq. Abdur Razzaq was born on November 7, 1413, in Herat (now in Afghanistan).
  2. Abdur Razzak’s father served as the qazi and imam of the Shah Rukh’s court in Herat. Shah Rukh, the ruler of Persia, was a Timurid dynasty member (Timur was succeeded by his son Shahrukh).
  3. Following his father’s death in 1437, Abdur was appointed as qazi of Shah Rukh’s court. Razzak flourished as a legal courtier, trustee, and ambassador under his tutelage.
  4. Under his guidance, Razzaq prospered in his roles as a trustee, ambassador, and courtier.
  5. From that moment on, he witnessed military and political operations, as well as diplomatic and military missions, in the capital cities of Herat and Samarqand.
  6. His diplomatic duties took Razzaq to many different places all around Eurasia. He had a mission to India that was his most significant obligation.

Abdur Razzaq Travel And Writing

  1. Abdur Razzaq represented Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty monarch of Persia, in Kozhikode, India, from January 1442 to January 1445. He chronicled his travels to India in a travelogue with a 45-page narrative.
  2. It is included as a section in his memoir (or a book) Matla-us-Sadain wa Majma-ul-Bahrain, also known as The Rising of Two Auspicious Constellations and the Meeting of Two Oceans, a work of approximately 450 pages that provides a thorough account of the history of his region of the world from 1304 to 1470 and draws heavily on other writings.

Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller Visits India

  1. In his account of his trip to India, Abd-al-Razzaq describes the wealth and tremendous magnificence of the Ancient City of Vijayanagara at Hampi as well as life and happenings in Calicut under the Zamorin.
  2. Vijayanagar was called a “city the pupil of the eye has never seen, and the ear of wisdom has never heard” by Abdur Razzaq Traveller.
  3. The Bahmani Empire, which was established by a family of Iranian ancestry, was the dominant Muslim authority in the Deccan at the time.
  4. Kamal-ud-din Abdur Razzaq was sent on a three-year mission by Shah Rukh of Persia in 1441, with most of that time being spent at the court of the Zamorin of Calicut (King Samudri of Kozhikode in Kerala).
  5. Abdur Razzaq Traveler in India was unwilling to embark on a voyage and only did so at the monarch’s request. In January 1442, he fled Herat.
  6. Abdur Razzaq overcame the dangers at sea, landed in Muscat for safety, traveled to Kariat, and fell gravely ill from the heat, however eventually he recovered enough to continue on an 18-day voyage by sea to Calicut in southwest India.
  7. The residents of Calicut, whom Abdur Razzaq characterized as wearing minimal clothing and engaging in polyandry, did not impress him. Due to the Vijayanagar King’s invitation to visit his realm, his stay in Calicut was only momentary.
  8. Abdur Razzaq landed in the Vijaynagar Empire through Mangalore.
  9. Visitor and Iranian ambassador to southern India, Abdur Razzaq, spent his entire year in the court of the King of Vijaynagar in Hampi. He departed the city and took an 18-day journey to reach Mangalore, followed by stops in Kalahat, Muscat, Khorfakkan, and the port of Hurmuz.
  10. According to Razzak, Deva Raya II’s domain extended from Orissa to Malabar and from Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to Gulbarga.
  11. Traveller Abdur Razzaq in India spent a total of seventy-five days at sea and never set out on another journey after that.
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Though he was an apprehensive traveler, his accounts are vivid and full of information, describing the Vijayanagara Kingdom in great detail. Some of his narrations are given below:

  1. He characterized King Deva Raya as having an olive complexion, an ornate collar of pearls, and being seated in a room with forty pillars while being surrounded by Brahmans when they first met. He was youthful, tall, and had no mustache or beard.
  2. Abdur Razzak received a Chinese fan, cash, camphor, and betel when he encountered the King. Razzak lived on high ground close to the king’s palace and received two sheep, four pairs of chickens, rice, butter, and two gold varahas per day.
  3. He stated that a capable King oversaw the kingdom of Vijayanagara. It was dotted with gardens, temples, and palaces.
  4. There were 1,100,000 warriors and 300 docks. It had strong defenses, and money was abounding in the markets.
  5. He also referred to the Royal Center of Hampi, where numerous streams and rivulets ran along channels made of cut-stone.
  6. He described a detailed account of the city’s beauty, prosperity, and vast grains.

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Conclusion

Abdur Razzaq was a traveler who spent a lot of time in India during the Medieval Era. His chronicles provide us with enough information on the Vijayanagara Kingdom’s government. He wasn’t a particularly ardent traveler, though. However, he is enthused to talk about the city of Vijayanagar.

Who Was Sent To Calicut By The Persian King?

Abdur Razzaq, an Islamic scholar, was sent to Calicut by the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia.

Who Was Abdur Razzaq Traveller?

Abdur Razzaq, a Persian scholar and ambassador to the Timurid Dynasty, was born in Iran. He traveled extensively through India in the Medieval era. His travelogues give insight into the administration of Vijayanagara Empire. He also wrote a travelogue about the city of Calicut. He claimed he would never travel again but was caught up by court intrigues.

What Was Said About Vijayanagar By Abdur Razzaq?

“The city of Vijayanagar is such that the pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it, and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal to it.” said the Abdur Razzak Persian traveller when he visited the capital city in the 15th century. The seven defenses in front of the royal palace’s gates are mentioned by Abdur Razzak traveller to Vijayanagara in 1440.

What Did Abdur Razzaq Traveller Swear On His Travelogues? Why Did He Act That Way?

Abdul-Razzaq became a reluctant traveller and did not want to travel again and he had good reasons for doing so. His brother was killed during the voyage and he was captured in court intrigues. The journey was dangerous and fast-paced. Abdur Razzak pledges to return home when he has reached his destination. It would be interesting to read his descriptions about China and the Spice Islands.

Name A Few Notable Foreign Visitors To India.

Abdur Razzak, Captain William Hawkins, Alberuni/Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, Al-Masudi
Fa-Hien, Chandragupta Maurya, and An Italian traveler Marco Polo were some of the notable foreign visitors to India.

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