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States and Union Territories Of India

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States and Union Territories Of India – An Overview

The article will provide information on the various states and union territories of India that make up the country of India. I

t may include details on the history, culture, geography, and government of each region, as well as information on their population and major cities.

The article may also discuss the political and administrative divisions of India, such as the roles and responsibilities of state and central governments.

Overall, the article would be providing a comprehensive overview of the different regions that make up India, highlighting their unique characteristics and contributions to the country as a whole.

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

The President of India appoints governors to represent the President and the Union Government in the states and union territories, and each state has a governor-appointed chief minister who heads the state government.

The union territories are directly governed by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her.

The capital of India is New Delhi, which is not a state but a union territory. The states have their own government and legislature, while union territories are governed by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her.

Table Of Contents
  1. States and Union Territories Of India – An Overview
  2. What is a State?
  3. History Of States 
  4. What Are The Two Types Of Union Territories  
  5. List of Union Territories of India
  6. Summing Up

What is a State?

A state is a political entity that is typically characterized by a defined territory and a government with the power to make and enforce laws within that territory.

States are usually considered to be sovereign, meaning that they have the authority to govern themselves without interference from other states or external powers.

In the context of India, a state refers to one of the 28 entities that make up the Indian federation. Each state has its own government, which is responsible for the administration and governance of the state.

The government of a state is usually divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch is responsible for enforcing laws and policies, the legislative branch is responsible for making laws, and the judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law.

States in India are also divided into districts, which are further divided into smaller administrative units. Each state has a governor, who is appointed by the President of India and acts as the head of state, and a chief minister, who is the head of government and is elected by the people.

States have also their own state constitution, which defines the powers and responsibilities of the state government and the rights of the citizens.

History Of States 

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

The history of the formation of the states and union territories of India dates back to 1947, when India gained independence from British rule.

The British Indian Empire was divided into two parts: India, which became a sovereign nation, and Pakistan, which was created as a Muslim-majority state.

In the years following independence, several changes were made to the political boundaries of India. The reorganization of states was done on linguistic basis in 1956, where states were reorganized on the basis of language spoken by majority of the people in that region.

This led to the formation of states such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and many more.

In the 1960s and 1970s, several new states were formed, including Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura. In 2000, three new states were created: Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand.

Union Territories are administered by the President of India through an Administrator appointed by him/her. These territories do not have a separate government, and the President may also empower the Administrator to legislate on matters such as public order, police, and land.

The history of Indian states and union territories is a dynamic and ongoing process, with ongoing debates and discussions about the creation of new states and the reorganization of existing ones.

1947–1950 – Painting The Picture 

The princely states’ lands were formally incorporated into the Indian union between 1947 and 1950. Many were absorbed by neighbouring provinces; some, like Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, were formed from a collection of smaller princely states; and a select few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became entirely new provinces.

India became an independent democratic republic on January 26, 1950, when its new constitution took effect. It was also announced that the new nation would be a “Union of States.”The Constitution of 1950 classified countries into three broad categories:

Former British India governors’ provinces called Part A states were governed by an elected governor and state assembly.

  1. Assam (previously Assam Province)
  2. Bihar (Previously Bihar Province)
  3. Bombay (Previous Bombay Province)
  4. East Punjab (Previous Punjab Province)
  5. Madhya Pradesh (Previous Central Provinces and Berar)
  6. Madras (Previous Madras Province)
  7. Orissa (Previous Orissa Province)
  8. Uttar Pradesh (Previous United Provinces)
  9. West Bengal (formerly Bengal Province)

These were the nine states that made up Part A.

The eight states in Part B were either independent princely states or confederations of princely states, each of which was ruled by a rajpramukh and had an elected legislature. The President of India made the selection for rajpramukh. The states that made up Part B were:

  1. Hyderabad (previously known as the Hyderabad Princely State),
  2. Jammu and Kashmir (previously known as the Jammu and Kashmir Princely State),
  3. Madhya Bharat (previously known as the Central India Agency),
  4. Mysore (previously known as the Mysore Princely State),
  5. the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU),
  6. Rajasthan (previously known as the Rajputana Agency),
  7. Travancore–Cochin (formerly Travancore Princely State and Cochin Princely State)


The previous chief commissioners’ provinces and several princely kingdoms were both included in the ten Part C states, each of which was ruled by a chief commissioner chosen by the President of India. States that were classified as “Part C” included

  1. Ajmer (formerly Ajmer-Merwara Province)
  2. Bhopal (formerly Bhopal Princely State)
  3. Bilaspur (formerly Bilaspur Princely State)
  4. Coorg State (formerly Coorg Province),
  5. Delhi, Himachal Pradesh
  6. Kutch (formerly Cutch Princely State)
  7. Manipur (formerly Manipur Princely State)
  8. Tripura (formerly Tripura Princely State)
  9. Vindhya Pradesh (formerly Central India Agency).
  10. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the only Partial State, are governed by a lieutenant governor who is selected by the Union Government.

Reorganization of States (The Era Between 1951–1956)

Articles of primary concern are the Freedom Fighters of Goa, the Andhra Movement, the Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and the States Reorganisation Commission.
On October 1, 1953, the northern districts of Madras State, where the Telugu language was spoken, became the independent state of Andhra.

In 1954, French-held Chandernagore officially became part of West Bengal. Transferred to India in the same year, the French territories of Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, and Mahé merged to become the union territory of Pondicherry in 1962. 

In the same year (1954), pro-Indian forces successfully retook the Portuguese-held territories of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, establishing the temporary de facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a Union Territory of India, was formally annexed in 1961. 

The new states were formed as a result of linguistic partitioning and the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.

Consequently of this act:

  1. Instead of changing the name of Madras State, the territory of Kanyakumari was added to the existing Travancore-Cochin state.
  2. In 1956, Andhra State and the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State merged to form the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State were combined with Travancore-Cochin to form Kerala.
  4. The districts of Bellary and South Canara (save for the Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district were transferred to Mysore State from Madras State, while the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara, and Dharwad were transferred to Mysore State from Bombay State.
  5. Formerly split between the South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State, the islands of Laccadive, Aminidivi, and Minicoy are now a unified and well-organized union territory known as Lakshadweep.
  6. The Marathi-speaking areas of the Nagpur division of Madhya Pradesh and the Marathwada region of Hyderabad State were added to Bombay State, as were Saurashtra State and Kutch State.
  7. Bihar lost some territory to West Bengal, whereas Rajasthan and Punjab both gained land with the union of the states of Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab.

Looking Into The Current Scenario 

Here is a tabular representation of data from all the states of India. 

State ISO Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population
(2011)
Area
(km2)
Official
languages
Additional official
languages
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu Urdu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Chhattisgarhi Hindi, English
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 26 January 1950 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English, Nepali Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern Hyderabad 2 June 2014 35,193,978 112,077 Telugu Urdu
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Central Bhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu

Let us now reflect on information related to each and every State that are present in India in 2023. 

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Andhra Pradesh 

Andhra Pradesh is a state located in the southern part of India. Its capital and largest city are Amaravati and it is the seventh-most populous state in India. The state has a coastline of 974 km and is known for its rich cultural heritage, temple architecture, and festivals.

Andhra Pradesh is also known for its rich history and is home to several ancient Buddhist sites. The state’s economy is primarily based on agriculture, with rice, sugarcane, and mangoes being some of the major crops.

Fishing and aquaculture are also important industries in the coastal regions. The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu.

History Of Andhra Pradesh 

Andhra Pradesh has a rich history dating back to ancient times. The region was ruled by several powerful dynasties, including the Satavahanas, the Ikshvakus, the Pallavas, and the Cholas. The region was also a part of the Mauryan Empire and was later ruled by the Eastern Chalukyas and the Kakatiyas.

During the British colonial period, Andhra Pradesh was part of the Madras Presidency and was known as the Northern Circars. After India’s independence in 1947, Andhra Pradesh was formed as a separate state in 1953.

In recent history, Andhra Pradesh state was bifurcated in 2014 and a new state Telangana was formed.

Andhra Pradesh has a rich cultural heritage, reflected in its temples, festivals, and traditional arts and crafts. The state is also known for its contributions to Telugu literature, music, and cinema.

Andhra Pradesh has also been at the forefront of many social and political movements in India, including the Telangana movement for separate statehood.

Geographical Aspect Of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is located in the southern part of India and is bordered by the states of Telangana to the north, Odisha to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the east, and Karnataka and Tamil Nadu to the west and south respectively. The state also has a coastline of 974 km along the Bay of Bengal.

The state can be broadly divided into three regions: the coastal region, the upland region, and the eastern ghats.

The coastal region is a narrow strip of land that runs along the Bay of Bengal and is known for its fertile delta and sandy beaches. This region is also home to many important ports and fishing villages.

The upland region is a hilly region that includes the Eastern Ghats and the Nallamala Hills. This region is rich in minerals, including bauxite, limestone, and manganese, and is also known for its forest reserves and wildlife.

The eastern ghats are a range of mountains that run parallel to the coast and are known for their scenic beauty and rich biodiversity. This region is also home to several ancient Buddhist sites, including the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Ajanta Caves.

The climate in Andhra Pradesh ranges from tropical monsoon on the east coast to semi-arid in the leeward western region.

All About The Economy Of Andhra Pradesh

According to the Advance Estimates, India’s GSDP in 2018–19 would be 850,000 crores, up from 2015–16’s First Revised Estimates of 490,134 crores (an increase of 11.61%) at constant (2011–12) prices. The GDP per capita climbed by 13.14 per cent, from 108.163 to 122,376 in 2016-17.

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy, as it employs 62% of the people both directly and indirectly.

According to the World Bank, it is the easiest state in which to start a business.

Political Conditions Of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh politics are carried out within the framework of a bicameral legislative system established by the Indian Constitution. The state is dominated politically by the YSR Congress Party and the Telugu Desam Party.

The Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party are two other parties with a relatively minor footprint in the state. Currently, Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy holds the position of Chief Minister.

Education And Literacy In Andhra Pradesh

According to the 2011 Indian census, the literacy rate of Andhra Pradesh was 67.41%. The state’s School Education Department oversees and regulates all public, aided, and private schools that provide elementary and secondary education in the state.

There are residential schools, schools in rural areas, and schools in metropolitan areas. There were a total of 7,041,568 students enrolled in a total of 62,063 schools in the 2018-2019 school year, as reported by the Child Information and School Information Report.

The State of India conducts the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) exam through the Directorate of Government Examinations. Around 94.88% of the more than 600,000 pupils who sat for the SSC this year passed, with a perfect score of 100 beings achieved by 5,464 schools. Telugu and English are the most popular choices for teaching languages, however, Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Odia, and Tamil are also used by a small percentage of teachers.

All About The Capital Of Andhra Pradesh

Amaravati is the planned capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of the river Krishna in Guntur district and is being developed as a greenfield city. The foundation stone for the city was laid by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, in October 2015.

The city is being developed as part of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA) and is expected to be one of the most sustainable and technologically advanced cities in India. The city is designed to be a hub for business and commerce, with a focus on sectors such as IT, biotechnology, and renewable energy.

The city is planned to have a wide range of amenities and infrastructure, including housing, healthcare, education, transportation, and recreational facilities. The city will also have a number of green spaces and parks, and is expected to be a major tourist destination.

The city is being developed in phases, with the first phase focusing on the development of the core capital area, which includes the legislative assembly, high court, and secretariat. The state government and the APCRDA are actively working towards the development of the city and infrastructure.

Amaravati is expected to be a major contributor to the economic development of the state and the country. The state government is taking all the necessary steps to make it a global city and a preferred destination for business and investments.

Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is the northernmost state of India and the first Indian ground to welcome the morning sun, hence its alternative name, “Land of the Dawn-lit-Mountains.” Located in India’s far northeast, between China and Bhutan and Burma (Myanmar), this stunning region is home to a rich and varied ecosystem that is likely to captivate visitors.

The thick woods of Arunachal Pradesh are home to more than 500 types of endemic orchids. The enchanting splendour of this wonderful region is enhanced by the misty hills, shimmering rivers, and gushing waterfalls. Kalika Purana and the classic Hindu epic Mahabharata both make reference to Arunachal Pradesh. Those mountains are often identified as the Prabhu Mountains from the Puranas.

In Arunachal Pradesh, the Hindu god Krishna is said to have wed his consort Rukmini and the teacher Parshuram to atone for his sins. Arunachal Pradesh, India, is littered with countless historical structures and archaeological relics attesting to its rich cultural legacy as the seat of several mighty dynasties and kingdoms.

History Of Arunachal Pradesh

Formerly known as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), on February 20, 1987, the territory was officially recognised as a new state. To the south, it is bordered by the states of Assam and Nagaland. It has international boundaries to the west with Bhutan, to the east with Myanmar, and to the north with China at the disputed McMahon Line.

Geographical Aspect Of Arunachal Pradesh

Located in northeast India at the base of the Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh is known as the peanut capital of the world. It covers an expansive 83,743 km2 of land (32,333 sq mi). Eighty per cent of the land area is covered by trees, and only two percent is made up of water. The Brahmaputra River is the ultimate destination for the waterways of the region, including those that originate in the Himalayas and Patkoi and Arakan Ranges.

Cities on the lowlands have an elevation of less than 300 metres, whereas the highest mountains in the region reach above 7,000 metres (23,000 feet) in height (980 ft).

Bordering countries outside of Arunachal Pradesh include Bhutan, Tibet (China), and Burma. Assam and Nagaland are two of the states that border Arunachal Pradesh on the inside. As well as “orchid state of India” and “dawn-lit mountain,” “Land of Dawn,” and “Dawn-Lit Mountains,” Arunachal is known by a number of other names.

All About The Economy Of Arunachal Pradesh

The people of Arunachal Pradesh eat a largely non-vegetarian diet and cuisine. On the menu, fish is among the top three most popular items, alongside pork and eggs. However, Arunachal Pradesh’s fish production falls well short of the state’s fishing industry’s needs.

This necessitates bringing in fish from elsewhere in India, particularly Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. As a result, state authorities have increased their focus on pisciculture to satisfy growing domestic demand. The state of Arunachal Pradesh has the potential for both cold and warm water fisheries, which bodes well for the future of the fishing industry there. Arunachal Pradesh is home to a plethora of rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and ponds.

However, Arunachal Pradesh’s minimal fish output can be traced back to a number of factors, including the rapid expansion of weeds and hyacinths, dirty water bodies, a lack of nutrients, and an inadequate supply of fish seeds. Pisciculture in Arunachal Pradesh requires extensive cleaning and processing of the state’s water sources.

There needs to be a massive increase in fish production and a fair sharing of that bounty among fish producers. The government should promote private farms and work toward creating integrated rice-fish systems.

The East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh has given fishing its due, and the industry now accounts for a significant portion of the state’s output. At the same time, Bomdilla, Itanagar, and Zero in Arunachal Pradesh have emerged as important fishing hubs.

Political Conditions Of Arunachal Pradesh

Locals refer to the sub-national administration of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and its 25 districts simply as “the Government of Arunachal Pradesh.” It’s made up of three different branches: the executive, headed by the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh, the judicial system, and the legislature.

The President of India, acting on the advice of the Central government, appoints a Governor to lead Arunachal Pradesh, as he does with all Indian states. The governor’s role is mostly symbolic.

The Chief Minister serves as both the government’s head and its chief executive. In Itanagar, the administrative and legislative centres of Arunachal Pradesh are located. Arunachal Pradesh cases are heard by the Gauhati High Court’s Permanent Bench in Itanagar, located in Naharlagun. 

With only 60 representatives, Arunachal Pradesh’s current unicameral Legislative Assembly is the largest in the world (M.L.A). In the absence of earlier dissolution, its term will last for 5 years.

Education and Literacy In Arunachal Pradesh

According to the most recent population census, the literacy rate of Arunachal Pradesh is 65.38 per cent, continuing an upward trend.

The literacy rate is 57.70% among women compared to 72.55 % among men. Female literacy in Arunachal Pradesh was lower than male literacy (43.53%) in 2001, while the overall literacy rate was 54.34 per cent.

The overall number of educated people in Arunachal Pradesh is 766,005, with men making up 439,868 of that amount and women making up 326,137.

All About The Capital Of Arunachal Pradesh

The state capital of Arunachal Pradesh is located in Itanagar in northeastern India. The city, located at the base of the Himalayas, is home to the historic Ita Fort and the Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum, which features displays of local textiles and handiwork.

The Dalai Lama performed the rituals of consecration at the neighbouring Gompa, a Buddhist temple with a yellow roof. Forests, orchids, and ferns surround Geker Sinying (or Ganga Lake) to the west of town.

Assam

Assam is a state located in northeastern India. It is known for its rich cultural heritage and diverse landscapes, including tea gardens, rainforests, and the Brahmaputra River.

The state is home to several ethnic groups, including the Assamese, Bodo, and several tribal communities. Assam is also known for its wildlife, including the one-horned rhinoceros, elephants, and tigers, which can be found in the state’s national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.

The economy of Assam is mainly based on agriculture, oil and natural gas production, and tea cultivation.

History Of Assam

Assam is home to people of Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman (Sino-Tibetan), Tai, and Indo-Aryan ancestry, and its history is a fascinating cross-section of these four continents and their resulting cultural melting pot.

The third Burmese invasion in 1821 and the succeeding British entrance into Assam in 1824 during the First Anglo-Burmese War were the first times the region became a vassal or colony of external power, despite several invasions over the ages.

The history of Assam has been pieced together from many sources. Buranjis were written in both the Ahom and Assamese languages and were kept as historical records by the Ahom kingdom in mediaeval Assam.

The Kamarupa rulers left a legacy of written documents in the form of royal grants, edicts, edicts, royal inscriptions, and other documents that document the history of ancient Assam.

Time in Assam’s past may be broken down into four distinct periods. The Kamarupa kingdom was founded in the fourth century B.C.E. when it was mentioned in Samudragupta’s inscriptions on the Allahabad pillar.

After the fall of the old monarchy and the rise of mediaeval kingdoms and chieftain-ships, the first attacks from the Bengal Sultanate occurred in 1206 with Bakhtiyar Khilji, as recorded in the Kanai-boroxiboa rock inscription.

The British took control of India with the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, ushering in the colonial era; the post-colonial era did not begin until 1947, with the independence of India.

Geographical Aspect Of Assam

Physically, the state stretches from the Eastern Himalayan foothills to the Patkai and Naga Hill Ranges from 22°19′ to 28°16′ North Latitude and 89°42′ to 96°30′ East Longitude. The state is bounded by Bhutan to the north and Arunachal Pradesh to the east.

All About The Economy Of Assam

The current Assam economy is a fascinating example of economic backwardness coexisting with abundance. Since the 1970s, the gap between Assam and the rest of India in terms of per capita income has been widening fast.

For example, between 1981 and 2000, the Indian economy grew at a rate of 6 per cent annually, whereas Assam’s GDP increased at a rate of only 3.3 per cent. Assam’s negative 3.78 per cent growth rate during the Sixth Plan period was significantly higher than India’s positive 6 per cent growth rate during the same time period, as seen in.

The disparities between Assam’s and India’s economic growth rates expanded in the post-liberalized era (after 1991).

Political Conditions Of Assam

Assam, a state in eastern India, is led politically by a ceremonial position known as the Governor. The Assam Assembly members serving as his ministers report to him directly to the Chief Minister.

The Governor’s influence has grown in recent years, in part because the two most recent governors were both retired Army generals and the Army is responsible for anti-insurgency operations against ULFA and other armed organisations.

Education And Literacy In Assam

Even though Bengali is the official language in the three Barak Valley districts, Assamese is the major indigenous and official language. Many schools in Assam use English as their primary language of instruction.

According to the Language Census conducted in 2011, 1.53 million people claimed Assamese as their native tongue, placing it at position number twelve among India’s 22 officially recognised languages. According to the census taken in 2011, Assam has a total literacy rate of 72.19 per cent. In Assam, 77.85% of males and 66.2% of females are literate.

All About The Capital Of Assam

The capital of Assam is Dispur, which is a neighbourhood of the city of Guwahati. Guwahati is the largest city and the main commercial and transportation hub of the state.

Dispur is located in the Kamrup district of Assam and is situated on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River. It is a planned suburb of Guwahati and is the administrative centre for the state government of Assam. The city of Dispur was named after the Dispur College, which was established in the area in the early 19th century.

The capital complex of Dispur includes the Assam Secretariat building, the Assam Assembly building, and the offices of various state government departments. The Assam State Museum and the Assam State Zoo are also located in Dispur.

Bihar

Bihar is a state located in the eastern part of India. It is bordered by Nepal to the north, West Bengal to the east, Uttar Pradesh to the west, and Jharkhand to the south.

The capital of Bihar is Patna. It is the third-most populous state in India and the 13th-largest state by area. The official language of the state is Hindi and the majority of the population is Hindu.

The economy of Bihar is primarily agrarian, with a significant portion of the population engaged in farming and related activities. The state is also known for its rich cultural and historical heritage, with many important religious and archaeological sites located in the region.

History Of Bihar

Bihar has India’s most diverse history. Bihar includes three areas with unique histories and cultures. Magadh, Mithila, Bhojpur. Saran district’s Chirand, on Ganga’s northern bank, features Neolithic-era remains (about 2500–1345BC).

Ancient Indian religious writings and epics mention Magadha, Mithila, and Anga in Bihar. Mithila was the Later Vedic Indian power centre (c. 1100-500 BCE). Videha’s rise elevated Mithila. Janakas were Videha Kings.

In Valmiki’s Hindu epic Ramayana, Sita, a Mithila Janak, is Lord Rama’s consort. The Vajjika League, based in Mithila’s Vaishali, absorbed the Videha Kingdom. 

Magadha, another Bihar region, was the centre of Indian power, study, and culture for a millennium. The Maurya Empire, Buddhism, and Jainism all originated in Bihar.

Magadha empires, such as the Maurya and Gupta, unified significant sections of India. Their capital Pataliputra, near modern-day Patna, was a major political, military, and economic centre of Indian civilization in ancient and classical times. Bihar wrote many ancient Indian writings besides religious epics. The most notable play was Abhijñānaśākuntala.

Magadha, Anga, and the Vajjika League of Mithila overlap with Bihar. Before Mahavira’s birth, the region had one of the world’s oldest republics (c. 599 BCE). Bihar’s traditional Gupta dynasty oversaw India’s Golden Age of culture and learning.

Devapala’s Pala Empire also ruled from Pataliputra. Bihar had little impact on Indian history till the Suri dynasty emerged in the 1540s.

After the Suri dynasty fell in 1556, Bihar again became a marginal factor in India and was the staging point for the British colonial Bengal Presidency from the 1750s until the war of 1857–58. clarify Bihar became an independent British Indian territory on March 22, 1912. Bihar has been an Indian Union state since 1947.

Geographical Aspect Of Bihar

Between latitudes 24°20’10″N and 27°31’15″N and longitudes 83°19’50″E and 88°17’40″E, Bihar lies in eastern India. Its subtropical temperate zone is landlocked.

Bihar is in a transitional climate, economy, and culture between humid West Bengal and subhumid Uttar Pradesh. North and south are Nepal and Jharkhand. The Ganges divides the Bihar plain into North and South Bihar. Bihar’s average elevation is 173 feet.

All About The Economy Of Bihar

India’s fastest-growing economy is Bihar’s. With strong agricultural and industrial sectors, it is mostly service-based. At market prices, the state’s GDP was 7,45,310 crores (US$94 billion) (2022–23).

State industry is minor. As of 2021, the state’s economy is 24% agriculture, 15% industrial, and 61% service.

Manufacturing grew 0.38% in the state from 2002 to 2007, compared to 7.8% nationally. Bihar has the lowest GDP per capita in India, yet its southern half and capital city, Patna, had better per capita income than Bangalore or Hyderabad in 2008.

2013–2014 GSDP was 7.57026 lakh Crores Rupees ($104 billion nominal GDP). In 2012–2013, Bihar state GDP ranked 8th out of 29 states. Transparency International India and the government agree that corruption is a major challenge.

Nitish Kumar’s new government has instituted economic and social changes since November 2005. State and Patna economies have improved. In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna second in India for business startups, after Delhi. State GDP rose 5.1% annually from 1999 to 2008, compared to 7.3% for India.

In January 2010, the Indian government’s Central Statistics Organisation estimated that Bihar’s GDP rose 11.03% between 2004–2005 and 2008–09, second only to Gujarat’s 11.05%. In 2007–08, Bihar’s factory output grew 14.80 per cent, slightly less than India’s 15.24 per cent, according to a CSO-NSSO survey under MOSPI.

Political Conditions Of Bihar

Regional parties dominate Bihar’s politics. As of 2021, the main political parties are Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), JDU, and Indian National Congress (INC) (INC). Smaller regional parties like Samata Party, Hindustani Awam Morcha, Jan Adhikar Party, Vikassheel Insaan Party, Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas), and Rashtriya Lok Janshakti Party are important in state politics. Mahagatbandhan (Grandalliance) coalition rules Bihar since 2022.

The President of India appoints the Governor of Bihar. Chief Minister and cabinet have executive power. The Legislative Assembly majority party governs. Krishna Sinha was Bihar’s first Chief Minister and Anugrah Narayan Sinha its first Deputy.

In 2014, Nitish Kumar replaced Jitan Ram Manjhi, who was fired. Manjhi took over after Kumar resigned after the 2014 general election.

Chief Secretary leads state bureaucracy. His subordinates are from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and various state civil services. Chief Justices lead courts. Bihar has a 1916-founded High Court. State capital Patna houses all government headquarters.

Bihar contains nine administrative divisions—Patna, Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger, and Magadh—with thirty-eight districts.

Education and Literacy In Bihar

Bihar has 69.83% literacy. Male literacy is 70.32%, and female 53.57%. 43.9% rural literacy. Male literacy is 57.1 and female literacy is 29.6 in rural Bihar.

Urban literacy is 71.9. Male and female literacy rates in urban Bihar are 79.9 and 62.6. Bihar has 3,16,75,607 literates—2,09,78,955 men and 1,06,96,652 women. Patna (70.68%), Bhojpur (70.47%), and Rohtas (73.37%) have the highest literacy rates.

Purnea (51.18%), Katihar (52.24%), and Sitamarhi (51.08%) have the lowest literacy rates. Bihari children were more receptive to Pratham’s instruction in a recent survey. At 53.3%, Bihar wants to enhance female literacy. Bihar women were 4.22% literate at independence.

All About The Capital Of Bihar

Bihar’s capital, Patna, is ancient Pataliputra. 290 miles (470 kilometres) northwest of Kolkata (Calcutta). Indian city Patna is ancient. Azimabad was its Mughal name.

Patna sits on the Ganges’ south bank for 12 km (19 km). West of the old city is Bankipur, and southwest is a vast new capital with broad roads, leafy avenues, and new structures. The Government House, Assembly Chambers, Oriental Library, medical college, and engineering college are among Patna’s modern landmarks.

The mosque of ʿusayn Shah of Bengal (1499), the Sikh Temple of the 10th Guru, Gobind Singh, and the Bankipur granary (1786), known as the Golghar, are historic landmarks in Patna. The Patna Museum and Patna University (1917) are located there. Hajipur, north of the Ganges, is reached by road via the Mahatma Gandhi Bridge.

Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh is a state in central India known for its rich natural resources and cultural heritage. The state is known for its dense forests, which are home to a wide variety of plant and animal species, as well as its many temples and other religious sites.

Some of the most notable temples in the state include the Laxman Temple in Sirpur, which is known for its intricate carvings and sculptures depicting scenes from Indian mythology.

The state is also home to the Sanjay Market in Jagdalpur, which is a popular destination for tourists and locals alike, and the Chitrakoot Falls, which is one of the largest and most spectacular waterfalls in India.

History Of Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh has been around since about the 4th century CE, when it was called Southern (or South) Kosala. The name “Chhattisgarh,” which means “thirty-six forts,” was once given to the land of the Haihaya dynasty of Ratanpur, which was started around the year 750.

Under British rule, the area that is now Chhattisgarh was split into 14 feudal princely kingdoms that were governed by the Eastern States Agency. The main office for that division was in Raipur.

Before November 1, 2000, Chhattisgarh was a part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Even though the campaign for Chhattisgarh to become a state didn’t start in earnest until the 1970s, its roots go back to the early 1900s, when local leaders started to claim that the region had a unique cultural identity.

In the early 1990s, promises of a separate state were a big part of the platforms of many political parties, and promises of a separate state were also a big deal in the 1996 and 1998 elections.

The Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Bill, which made Chhattisgarh, was passed by the Indian government in August 2000. The creation of Chhattisgarh was especially notable because it happened without any agitation or violence, unlike the creation of two other new states around the same time, Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand) and Jharkhand.

Geographical Aspect Of Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh State is mostly made up of plateaus with high ranges of Satpuras in the north, the river Mahanadi and its tributaries in the Central plains, and the Bastar Plateau in the south. The main river systems, Mahanadi, Hasdeo, Shivnath, and Indravati, all start in the hills.

With these winding rivers and hills and plateaus, the State has a beautiful natural setting that is very different from one place to the next. The Kalchuris owned 18 garhs to the north of the river Shivnath, and the Kalchuris of Raipur owned another 18 garhs to the south. So, the name Chhattisgarh came from the fact that this area has a total of 36 Garhs (Forts).

Chhattisgarh is between 17 degrees 46 minutes north and 80 degrees 15 minutes east. It is 1,35,133 square kilometres in size. It shares borders with six other states: Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand in the north, Orissa in the east, Andhra Pradesh in the south, Maharashtra in the southwest, and Madhya Pradesh in the northwest. Even though the state was just created on November 1, 2000, its cultural history goes back to the Stone Age.

Chhattisgarh used to be called Dakshin Koshal in the past. In the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, there are references to the place’s geography.

Lord Rama came to Dandkarnaya from the northeast of Koshal. He spent some of his time in exile (for a living) here. In the Mahabharata episode Rajsoorya Yagya, the story of Dagshin Koshal is told. In Samudragupta Prayag’s eulogy, there is a description of Kosal. This has been found in historical records.

After the sixth century, there is proof that Dakshin Koshal had a political uprising. From the sixth century to the middle ages, the area was ruled by the sarabhpurnima, panduvanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri, and Nagwanshi.

All About The Economy Of Chhattisgarh

The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Chhattisgarh is expected to be Rs. 4.38 trillion (US$ 57.34 billion) in 2022-23, based on current prices. At current prices, the state’s GSDP (in Rs) grew at a CAGR of 9.98% from 2015-16 to 2022-23.

It is one of the most mineral-rich states in India. It has 28 types of important minerals, including diamonds. In April 2021, 14.4% of all the minerals made in India came from Chhattisgarh.

In 2019-20, the state made a total of Rs. 11,125 crores ($1.53 billion) worth of minerals. Also, there are large amounts of bauxite, limestone, and quartzite in the state. Tin concentrates are only made in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. 35.4% of all the tin ore reserves in India were in this state. From April 2021 to March 2022, the state is likely to make 12,177 kgs of tin concentrate.

In FY22, Chhattisgarh sent out a total of US$ 1,629.76 million worth of aluminium and aluminium products, iron and steel, iron ore, and iron and steel products. The main exports are non-basmati rice, aluminium products, and iron ore, which make up 25.5%, 22.6%, and 17.7%, respectively, of the state’s exports of goods.

Political Conditions Of Chhattisgarh

The three parts of the Chhattisgarh government are the executive, the legislature, and the courts. The Governor is in charge of running the government of Chhattisgarh.
The Chief Minister guides the work of the cabinet of ministers, which is in charge of different parts of the government.

The Chhattisgarh government is made up of many different departments and institutions. Some of them have to do with food, water resources, public supplies, transportation, labour and tribal welfare, panchayat and rural development, revenue, law and legal affairs, etc.

The Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress are the two biggest national political parties in the state of Chhattisgarh. In every election that has been held in the state, the two parties have been very important. The Bahujan Samaj Party, the Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha, the Chhattisgarh Samaj Party, and the Gondwana Party are all political parties in the state of Chhattisgarh.

A lot of people from the tribal communities in Chhattisgarh are in the political parties there. In the state of Chhattisgarh, there are 146 blocks. Of those, 85 are made up of people from tribal communities, which make up 32% of the state’s population. In Chhattisgarh, women also play an important role by taking part in politics.

Education and Literacy In Chhattisgarh

The education system in Chhattisgarh is not very impressive because it doesn’t have the right tools. But the state government has started a number of programmes to help schools in the state do better. Overall, the number of people who can read and write has gone up because the state government has worked hard at it. According to the 2001 census report, 65.18% of people in Chhattisgarh could read and write.

The literacy rates for men and women were 77.86% and 52.40%, respectively. Women’s education and the education of students from less fortunate parts of society are given extra attention. Chhattisgarh’s main college town is Raipur, which is also the state’s capital. Some of the most important education departments in the state are there.

All About The Capital Of Chhattisgarh

Not only is Raipur the state capital of Chhattisgarh, but it also serves as the district capital.
Raipur used to be a part of Madhya Pradesh. With the creation of the new Indian state of Chhattisgarh, Raipur was incorporated into it. Previously, it had been a part of Madhya Pradesh. Raipur, in Central India, is a thriving economic centre.

According to the Swachh Survekshan, which evaluated the cleanliness of Indian cities in 2021, Raipur came in at number six.

Raipur landed in 2019 at number seven on the list of cities with the easiest lives.
According to the 2011 census, the sex ratio in Raipur is 945 females for every 1000 males, which is higher than the average of 940 females for every 1000 males across India.

The percentage of literate adults in Raipur is extremely high. Literacy rates for both sexes are high: 91.39 percent of men and 92.39 percent of women can read and write.

Goa

The western Indian state of Goa has a long coastline on the Arabian Sea. Both the tropical spice plantations and the historic churches from the 17th century attest to the region’s lengthy history as a Portuguese colony prior to 1961. Baga and Palolem are two of the most well-known beaches in Goa, although the state is also home to quieter beaches in fishing towns like Agonda.

History Of Goa

The Portuguese acquired Goa as their initial territory in Asia. The 30 island towns’ constitutions and traditions were mostly unaltered by Albuquerque and his successors, with the exception of the ceremony of suttee (sati; the immolation of widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands).

As the centre of the Portuguese empire in Asia, Goa eventually became the region’s primary political and economic hub. Between 1575 and 1600, it enjoyed its greatest period of prosperity after receiving the same civic privileges as Lisbon. The collapse of Goa may be traced back to the time when the Dutch first appeared in Indian waters.

The city was plagued by an epidemic in 1635 and blockaded by Dutch fleets in 1603 and 1639, but they never managed to take it. A Mughal force prevented its conquest by Maratha raids in 1683, and a second Maratha invasion in 1739 was averted only by the sudden appearance of a new Portuguese viceroy accompanied by a fleet.

Geographical Aspect Of Goa

The region of Konkan includes Goa. Goa consists of a mix of hills, valleys, and coasts. Goa’s varied landscape is roughly divided into three zones: lowlands, plateaus, and mountains.

As for the lowlands, those are the areas along the coasts. About 110 kilometres in length. The area’s coastline features numerous beaches. The fertile soil is a result of the many rivers that flow from east to east through the region. It’s very crowded here.

Lands on the Plateau: The plateau region lies between the mountainous east and the lowland western regions. Between 30 and 100 metres is the typical elevation of the plateau’s land. In this area, you can find a lot of the laterite stone that is so characteristic of the desert.

It’s what gets put to use in constructing the homes. The name “headland of Goa” is used to refer to a certain portion of the plateau. On these rocky outcrops, lighthouses have been constructed. Because of the plateau’s poor soil, very few crops are grown there.

South Goa is located in a mountainous terrain, with the Sahyadri range to the east. Dense woodland grows in this area. The terrain here includes some extremely precipitous mountains. Chandranath at Paroda, Dudhsagar in Sanguem taluka, and Cormolghant in Canacona taluka make up the mountains in southern Goa.

Rivers and streams abound in this area, and many of them eventually make their way to the lowlands. The rivers of southern Goa are the Zuari, Talpona, Sal, and Galgibag. Navigation and transportation are both dependent on rivers.

Ores mined in Sanguem taluka at locations including Costi, Kirpal, Netravalim, Rivona, Ducorcond, and Kuddegal are transported to Mormugao harbour via inland rivers. Mineral deposits in South Goa include iron, bauxite, and manganese ore. Most of these ores are shipped to Asia, particularly China, Japan, South Korea, and even certain European countries.

All About The Economy Of Goa

The industrial sectors of fishing, agriculture, tourism, and pharmaceuticals are the main contributors to Goa’s booming economy.

In 2022-23, Goa had a GSDP of Rs 914.17 billion (US$ 11.09 billion) at current prices. Between 2016–17 and 2022–23, GSDP grew at a CAGR of 6.41 percent (in Rs).

Political Conditions Of Goa

There are a number of major political parties in Goa, a state in Western India, including the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Indian National Congress, the Aam Aadmi Party, the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party, the Goa Forward Party, and the Revolutionary Goans Party.

The Nationalist Congress Party, the Shiv Sena, and the Trinamool Congress are also represented.

Education and Literacy In Goa

When compared to many other states, our educational system is among the best. The literacy rate in the state is 82%, according to the census taken in 2001, which is significantly higher than the national average.

Goa’s education system has improved thanks in part to the high standard of state-run institutions and the relatively low prevalence of corruption. Goans are satisfied with the quality of the public education system, hence there is little interest in private schools. There are about 2,153 different types of schools in Goa, from kindergartens to universities.

All About The Capital Of Goa

Panaji (Panjim) is the capital and is located on the coast in the district’s north centre area. It was a Portuguese colony till 1962, and then it became a part of India. It finally became an independent state in 1987. Surface Area: 1,429 Sq. Miles (3,702 square km).

Gujarat

Gujarat is a state located on the western coast of India. It is bordered by Pakistan to the northwest, Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea to the west.

The capital of Gujarat is Gandhinagar and its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is known for its rich cultural heritage, including the famous Rann of Kutch, the Great Indian Desert, and the famous Gandhi Ashram which is located in Ahmedabad and it was home of Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian independence movement.

Gujarat is also known for its rich history, including the Indus Valley Civilization and the Mughal Empire. Gujarat is also an important industrial state, with many large and small industries in the state, including textiles, chemicals, and petrochemicals.

History Of Gujarat

The first written records of the state of Gujarat date back to the year 2000 B.C. Dwarka, on the western coast of Saurashtra, is where Lord Krishna is thought to have settled after leaving Mathura.

Several Hindu dynasties, including the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Pratihars, etc., governed this state. Under the Chalukyas (Solankis), Gujarat saw a period of unprecedented growth and development.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, repeatedly pillaged his own country. The Chalukyas were nonetheless able to keep their state prosperous despite his assault. Following the fall of the Chalukyas, Muslim, Maratha, and British control took over the state.

During British rule, Gujarat was divided into two parts: one was a British protectorate, while the other was a princely state. In May 1960, after India gained its independence, the present-day state of Gujarat was formed by the union of the Union Territory of Kachch with the Saurashtra and the old British state of Gujarat (which was a part of the bigger bilingual state of Bombay).

The Gurjara (allegedly a subtribe of the Huns) dominated the region in the eighth and ninth century CE, giving the state of Gujarat its name. Its current shape emerged in 1960, when the erstwhile Bombay state was split between Maharashtra and Gujarat on the basis of language. Sum total area: 75,685 square miles (196,024 square km). Pop. (2011) 60,383,628.

Geographical Aspects Of Gujarat

Its location on the western coast of India makes it a notable landmark. The state is flanked on the west by the Arabian Sea, the north and northeast by Pakistan and Rajasthan, the south and southeast by Madhya Pradesh, and the south by Maharashtra. It is the sixth largest state in India in terms of land size, at 1,96,024 square kilometres.

The state is primarily flat, with some low hills or small ranges stretching from Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra, and is surrounded by water from its southernmost to its northernmost regions. The Aravalli and Satpura mountain ranges both reach eastward from Rajasthan.

The Aravalli Mountains combine with the Vindhyas to create the Pavagadh region in the vicinity of Baroda. The mainland, the peninsular region of Saurashtra, and the Kutch region, which includes not only a significant expanse of desert land, known as the Rann of Kutch, are the state’s three primary geographical regions. Black, fertile, and alluvial soil can be found on the continent.

Deccan lava provides the soil in Saurashtra, while alluvial sandstone from the Kutch region provides the soil there.

The major rivers are the Narmada, Sabarmati, Mahi, and Tapi. Sabarmati’s beginnings can be traced back to Rajasthan’s Dhebar Lake. On its banks is where you’ll find Ahmedabad, the state capital. The Hathmati, Vatrak, and Meshwo are only a few of its tributaries.

The Mahi and the Narmada both have their roots in Madhya Pradesh. Whereas the Narmada is fed by multiple rivers, the Mahi has many: the Bhadar, Anas, Panam, and Meshro. Surat, a well-known city, sits on the Tapi River’s banks.

Also in the region are the rivers Brahmani and Machchu in Kutch, and the Kamb and Surekh in the Gir forest. The Kutch region’s northern-flowing rivers dry up in the desert, while the southern-flowing rivers eventually empty into the sea. More than 1,600 kilometres of coastline may be found in this state.


Because the tropic of Cancer runs along Gujarat’s northern border, the state can experience extreme temperatures year-round. Climate extremes are mitigated by the forest-covered hills to the east and the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Cambay to the west.

Summer highs average between 36.7°C and 43.3°C, with winter lows averaging between 20°C and 18.30°C. Varying from an average of 33 centimetres in Kutch and parts of Saurashtra to an average of 152 centimetres in the south, the state of Gujarat has a wide range of precipitation. Located in the southern part of Gujarat, Dangs receives the most rain (190 cm).

All About The Economy Of Gujarat

Gujarat’s economy revolves around Minerals and Mining in the Agricultural Sector. The detailed information about them are as follows 


In Gujarat, 34% of the population works in agriculture. Tobacco, cotton, and groundnut are all grown extensively in this state, making it a significant supplier to other industries like as the textile, oil, and soap sectors. In addition to Isabgol, Paddy, Wheat, and Bajra, there are a number of other major cash crops.

As a result of this push, the Gujarat Milk Marketing Federation (also known as Amul) was founded on a cooperative basis, and milk production has taken off across the state. Flora and fauna abound in this state. Teak, Khair, sadad, haldaryo, and manual bamboos are only some of the forest species found in Gujarat. Fruits and herbs used in medicine, such as guava and Jamun, are also abundant.


If you’re looking for a highly industrialised state, go no further than Gujarat. Industries including chemicals, petrochemicals, fertiliser, engineering, etc., have been expanding in the state, contributing to a more diversified industrial structure.

After the collapse of the big textile mills in Bombay, the city of Surat, a historic port, diversified into diamond cutting and polishing and weaving. The engineering sector has flourished in the Saurashtra area.

Thrust industries are given special attention in the industrial “Policy Gujarat 2000 AD and beyond.” Some examples are electronics, engineering ancillaries, apparel, jewels and jewellery, food and agro-processing, leather goods, businesses that rely heavily on human labour, and 100% EOUs. The creation of industrial estates complete with supporting infrastructure is the responsibility of the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC).

The state’s non-metallic minerals are more valuable than its metal ones. Along with the more common fluorspar and dolomite, there are also substantial quantities of minerals such as limestone, manganese, bauxite, lignite, and gypsum.

The Ambadungar region of the state contains the world’s largest fluorspar deposits. In India, the slat is mostly produced in the state of Gujarat. Ankleswar, Kalol, Cambay, and Navagam are all regions where the Oil and Natural Gas Commission have found promising new fields.

Political Conditions Of Gujarat

As with the other Indian states, Gujarat’s government is structured according to the national constitution enacted in 1950. The president of India appoints the governor to serve as the state’s head of government. The governor is assisted and advised by the Council of Ministers, which is headed by the chief minister (head of government).

The Legislative Assembly of Gujarat (Vidhan Sabha) is a single chamber of government. The highest court in the land is called the High Court. Within each judicial division are a number of lower courts, including city courts, courts of district and session judges, and courts of civil judges.

Roughly thirty-five of the state’s administrative regions exist. Each region has a collector who is in charge of collecting taxes and administering the region as a whole.

This collector also serves as the district magistrate, responsible for keeping the peace. In 1963, elected governing councils (panchayats) were formed at the village level with the aim of incorporating the people into local government.

Education and Literacy In Gujarat

According to the most recent census, the literacy rate in Gujarat has been on the rise and is now at 78.03 per cent. That figure rises to 85.75 per cent for males and drops to 69.68 per cent for females. In 2001, 69.14% of Gujaratians could read and write; men had an even higher percentage of 80.66%, while women’s literacy sat at 57.80%.

All About The Capital Of Gujarat

Gandhinagar is a planned city in the western Indian state of Gujarat. The Akshardham is a massive Hindu temple with ornate carvings and sculpted pillars, plus a water show in its sprawling gardens. Dandi Kutir museum traces the life of leader Mahatma Gandhi, who was born in Gujarat. South, along the Sabarmati River, the Indroda Nature Park has a zoo and botanical gardens, plus an adjacent dinosaur and fossil park.

Haryana 

Haryana is a state located in northern India. It is bordered by Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh to the north, Rajasthan to the west, and Uttarakhand and Delhi to the east.

The state capital is Chandigarh, which is a union territory and also serves as the capital of Punjab. Haryana has a diverse economy, with agriculture, manufacturing, and services sectors playing important roles. The main agricultural products include rice, wheat, sugarcane, and cotton.

The state is also a major contributor to India’s industrial output, with a strong presence in the automotive, engineering, and technology industries. The population of Haryana is around 25 million.

History Of Haryana

It is possible to see the roots of Haryana State’s demand by looking at the state’s past. British authorities harboured a burning desire for retribution after the Haryanvis’ impassioned involvement in the First War of Independence. The people of the Haryana region were thus politically punished in 1858 by having their province merged with Punjab.


The history of the name Hariyana (Haryana) is a subject of much conjecture. Hariyana is an old and storied moniker. Former ancient names for this area include Brahmavarta, Aryavarta, and Brahomoupdesa.

The emergence of Brahama-Lord in Haryana, the country of the Aryas and the place where the teachings of the Vedic cultures and other ceremonies were first preached, is the inspiration for these names.

Geographical Aspect Of Haryana

The Indian state of Haryana is entirely enclosed by land. Its coordinates are 27°39′ to 30°35′ N and 74°28′ to 77°36′ E. The overall landmass of the state is 4.42 million hectares (ha), or 1.4% of the total landmass of the United States. Haryana is located between 200 and 1200 metres (700 and 3600 feet) above sea level. Comparatively, only 4.0% of Haryana is covered by woods, well below the national average of 21.85%.

Haryana’s highest point is Karoh Peak, which stands at 1,467 metres (4,813 feet) tall and is located in the Sivalik Hills range of the broader Himalayas range, not far from the Morni Hills area of Panchkula district. The majority of the state is located on the rich Punjab Plain, a portion of the larger Indo-Gangetic Plain. Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, and Chandigarh are all neighbouring states and union territories of Haryana.

All About The Economy Of Haryana

Haryana’s 14th-ranked 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR anticipated a 2017-18 GSDP of US$95 billion split 52% services, 30% industries, and 18% agriculture. 45% of the services sector is real estate and financial and professional services, 26% trade and hospitality, 15% state and central government, and 14% transport and logistics & warehousing.

Gurugram leads India in IT services growth and technological infrastructure, and is second in the startup ecosystem, innovation, and livability.

 
The industrial sector is 69% manufacturing, 28% construction, 2% utilities, and 1% mining.
Haryana manufactures 67% of passenger vehicles, 60% of motorcycles, 50% of tractors, and 50% of refrigerators in India. 

7 operational SEZs and 23 legally approved SEZs (20 notified and 3 in-principal approval) along the Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor, Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor, and Western Peripheral Expressway support the service and industrial sectors 93% is crops and cattle, 4% commercial forestry and timber, and 2% fisheries.


Haryana sends 15% of food grains to the central food security public distribution system and 7% of agricultural exports, including 60% of basmati rice exports.

Political Conditions Of Haryana

The Bharatiya Janata Party, Indian National Congress, Indian National Lok Dal, Haryana Janhit Congress, and Bahujan Samaj Party compete in the state (Haryana Legislative Assembly) and national (Lok Sabha) elections in Haryana.

The dynastic political clans of Haryana are often criticised for the infamous self-serving politics of the Aaya Ram Gaya Ram turncoats, who notoriously engage in frequent party switching, political horse-trading, unholy political alliances, political corruption, political cronyism, nepotistic-dynastic rule, and serving their clan more than their voters and people of Haryana.

Education and Literacy In Haryana

The 2011 population census reported 76.64 per cent literacy in Haryana. Female literacy is 66.67%, and male 85.38%. Haryana has 67.91% literacy in 2001, with males at 78.49% and females at 55.73%. Panchkula, Ambala, and Gurgaon had the highest literacy rates in Haryana in 2013.

The Haryana Board of School Education, founded in September 1969 and moved to Bhiwani in 1981, holds public middle, matriculation, and senior secondary exams twice a year. 700,000 candidates take February and March annual exams, and 150,000 take November supplementary exams.

The Board administers senior and senior secondary Haryana Open School exams twice a year. Haryana offers free bachelor’s degrees to women.

All About The Capital Of Haryana

The Indian city of Chandigarh is an example of urban planning. Both the state of Punjab to the west and the state of Haryana to the south and east from Chandigarh’s borders.

In conjunction with Panchkula and Mohali, it makes up the majority of the Chandigarh Capital Region, often known as Greater Chandigarh. It lies 229 kilometres (143 miles) southeast of Amritsar and 260 kilometres (160 miles) north of New Delhi.

In the decades following India’s independence, Chandigarh rose to prominence as one of the country’s first master-planned towns.

The Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier devised the city’s master plan, expanding upon the work of Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and American planner Albert Mayer.

Le Corbusier, Jane Drew, and Maxwell Fry led the design team responsible for most of the city’s public structures and private residences. At the 40th session of the World Heritage Conference in July 2016, UNESCO designated the Capitol Complex in Chandigarh as a World Heritage Site as part of a global ensemble of Corbusier’s works.

Himachal Pradesh

Located in India’s northern region, Himachal Pradesh is one of the country’s states. Located in the western part of the Himalayas, this state is one of the thirteen mountain states and is known for its severe landscape, which includes several mountains and huge rivers.

As the most northerly state in India, Himachal Pradesh is bordered to the north by the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, to the west by Punjab, to the southwest by Haryana, to the southeast by Uttarakhand, and to the south by Uttar Pradesh only over a thin strip of land.

China’s Tibet Autonomous Region forms the state’s international boundary to the east. Dev Bhoomi and Veer Bhoomi are two of the many names for Himachal Pradesh, both of which mean “Land of the Gods” and “Land of the Brave,” respectively.

History Of Himachal Pradesh

The Indian province of Himachal Pradesh was founded in 1948 as a Chief Commissioner’s Province under the federal government of India. The province included the mountainous regions to the south and east of the old Punjab region, including the hill districts surrounding Shimla.

In 1951, when India’s new Constitution took effect, Himachal Pradesh became a part C state. On November 1, 1956, Himachal Pradesh was added to the Union as a Union Territory.

The State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament on December 18, 1970, and the new state officially began operations on January 25, 1971. Himachal Pradesh is the 18th state to join the Indian Union in this way.

King Shambhar of the ancient Kirata people ruled over the Himalayan areas between the ‘River Sutlej’ and the ‘River Yamuna’ before the Aryan people migrated to Ancient India.

As the name suggests, their kingdom straddled the border between Tibet and India. The Kiratas were renowned merchants who shipped many goods between “Tibet” and “India,” as well as formidable archers and warriors.

Geographical Aspect Of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh is located in the western Himalayas, between 30°22′N and 33°12′N in latitude and 75°47′E and 79°04′E in longitude. This hilly state has an area of 55,673 square kilometres (21,495 square miles).

The Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal mountains of the smaller Himalayas, as well as their valleys, make up much of the central areas, while the Zanskar range extends across the northeastern section of the state and the big Himalayan range runs through the east and north.

The Shiwalik range, which forms the southern and western parts of Himachal Pradesh, is part of the outer Himalayas. Himachal Pradesh is home to the world’s second-highest mountain, Reo Purgyil (6,816 m).

66.52% of Himachal Pradesh is covered by forests that are protected by law, according to a report by the Forest Survey of India from 2003.

The state’s vegetation is determined by both altitude and rainfall. A wide variety of useful and pleasant-smelling plants are native to the state. Being a frigid desert, the Lahaul-Spiti region of the state is home to rare and valuable medicinal plants such as the Ferula jaeschkeana, Hyoscyamus niger, Lancea tibetica, and Saussurea bracteata.

All About The Economy Of Himachal Pradesh

As of 1948, Himachal Pradesh had entered a period of centrally planned economic development. Himachal received around Rs. 52.7 million during the first five-year plan. More than half of this money went for transportation infrastructure since it was believed that the planning and development process would stall without it.

The rural parts of Himachal were initially targeted for a community development programme that began in 1952. Package programmes were implemented in Mandi and Kangra with the help of West Germany to spread the use of modern farming methods among local farmers.

Agriculture and animal husbandry were modernised with the introduction of the necessary equipment. Besides an Agriculture University in Palampur, other centres also boast modern soil testing labs, dairy farms, and agricultural workshops.

Himachal Pradesh is one of India’s states that has undergone tremendous development, moving from the country’s most impoverished region to its most prosperous one. Himachal Pradesh’s current per capita income is higher than that of all but three other states in the Indian Union.

Here is the table that reflects on the Economic being of Himachal Pradesh. 

GDP ₹1.92 lakh crore (US$24 billion) (2022-23 est.)
GDP rank 22nd
GDP growth +10.2% (2020-21)
GDP per capita ₹90,212,262 (US$1.1 million) (2020-21)
GDP by sector Agriculture 14%
Industry 40%
Services 46% (2020-21)
Inflation (CPI) 2%
Population below the poverty line 0.23%
Human Development Index 0.725
Unemployment 1.2% (2018-19)

Political Conditions Of Himachal Pradesh

Two major political parties in Himachal Pradesh, a state in northwest India, are the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Himachal Pradesh’s politics have more to do with the state’s several regions than with any national or international issues.

The state’s districts can be roughly divided into two groups: Upper Himachal, which includes Shimla and Sirmaur as well as smaller portions of Mandi, Kullu, Lahaul and Spiti, Solan, Kinnaur, and Chamba, and Lower Himachal, which includes Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Una, and the lower region of Mandi district.

There are significant voting patterns differences between the old Himachal and the newly combined areas that were added to the state of Himachal Pradesh in 1966 as a result of the Punjab Reorganisation Act.

Below is the table that reflects on the political appointments and hierarchy of Himachal Pradesh.

Assembly Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha
Speaker Kuldeep Singh Pathania
Leader of Opposition Jai Ram Thakur
Executive Branch
Governor Rajendra Arlekar
Chief Minister Sukhvinder Singh Sukhu
Deputy Chief Minister Mukesh Agnihotri
Chief Secretary Prabodh Saxena, IAS
Judiciary
Court Himachal Pradesh High Court
Chief Justice Amjad Ahtesham Sayed
Seat Shimla

Education And Literacy In Himachal Pradesh

In the most recent census, the literacy rate for Himachal Pradesh was found to be 82.80 per cent, continuing an upward trend. Literacy rates are at 89.53% among males and 75.93% among females.

There was a 76.48 per cent literacy rate in Himachal Pradesh in 2001, with 85.35 per cent of males and 67.42 per cent of females able to read and write.

The total number of literate people in Himachal Pradesh is 5,039,736; this includes 2,752,590 men and 2,287,146 females.

All About The Capital Of Himachal Pradesh

Shimla and Dharamshala are the respective capital cities of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh has two capital cities—Shimla in the summer and Dharamshala in the winter.

The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is home to a beautiful mountain town known as Shimla.

Shimla is named after Shyamala, a manifestation of Kali.

The Himachal Pradesh state government proposed renaming Shimla as Shyamala in 2018. The state administration had originally considered changing the name, but after receiving negative feedback from the public, they chose to keep Shimla’s name.

Significant political accords were formerly signed in Shimla.

When it comes to tourism and higher learning, Shimla is second to none.


Dharamshala is Himachal Pradesh’s winter capital.

  1. Dharamshala is the seat of government for the neighbouring Kangra district.
  2. On January 19, 2017, Dharamshala was officially named Himachal Pradesh’s winter capital.
  3. As the Dalai Lama’s official residence, Dharamshala enjoys worldwide renown. In 1960, Dharamshala became the new home of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA).

Jharkhand

On November 15, 2000, the birthday of the renowned Bhagwan Birsa Munda, the Bihar reorganisation Act was passed, making the state of Bihar the 28th member of the Indian Union.

Mineral resources such as Uranium, Mica, Bauxite, Granite, Gold, Silver, Graphite, Magnetite, Dolomite, Fireclay, Quartz, Fieldspar, Coal (32% of India), Iron, Copper (25% of India), etc., are well known in Jharkhand.

More than 29% of the state is covered by forests and woodlands, making it one of the most forested states in India.

History Of Jharkhand

The hilly, forested region is inaccessible to many. This state’s tribes have lived here for thousands of years and haven’t changed much except in recent decades. Many researchers claim Jharkhand tribes speak Harappan.

This has sparked interest in decoding Harappan writings using rock art and tribal languages. Jharkhand was mostly hidden in Vedic times. Around 500 BC, 16 major republics ruled the Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanpadas.

Swords, bows, axe, and other weapons determined janpad supremacy. Magadha, the janpad that ruled Jharkhand, dominated most of the country because of its vast iron reserves.

The Mauryas and Guptas sprang from Magadha’s long rule over the Indian subcontinent. After the Guptas fell, many regional empires tried to conquer India. Muslim Sultans of Delhi and their Bengali feudatories tried to rule this mineral-rich territory.

British built a massive railway network to exploit this region’s raw materials for their burgeoning industries back home. Calcutta became a key port for exporting raw resources to England.

Birsa Munda (1875-1900), Sidho, and Kanho were tribal heroes who battled the British. Birsa Munda, now a god, defended tribal rights to woods and land that the British were stealing for exploitation. Birsa Munda was caught by the British and died in prison after a hard fight. Tribal heroes Sidho and Kanho were tribal revolutionaries.

Jharkhand was part of Bihar until Indian independence when tribals began demanding a separate state. Over the past 50 years, this region’s tribes opposed Northern Bihar, which profited from its mineral deposits. On November 15, 2000, Jharkhand became a state of India.

Geographical Aspect Of Jharkhand

Most of the state sits on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Large swaths of the state are still forested. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Soil content of the Jharkhand state mostly consists of soil created from the disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further split into Red dirt, found largely in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and places around the Mandar hill Sandy soil, commonly seen in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad Black soil, found in Rajmahal area Laterite soil, found in the western section of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum.

All About The Economy Of Jharkhand

As of the fiscal year 2021-22E, Jharkhand’s GSDP was Rs. 3.63 trillion (US$ 48.63 billion), at constant prices.

Jharkhand is one of the world’s wealthiest resource zones, with 40% of India’s mineral reserves and 29% of India’s coal reserves. The state’s primary economic drivers are mining and mineral exploitation thanks to its abundant mineral resources.

In FY21, the state’s mined minerals were worth a total of Rs. 10,172.47 crores (US$ 1.38 billion), excluding fuel minerals, atomic minerals, and minor minerals (until January 2021).

It is estimated that 27.3% of India’s coal, 26.0% of India’s iron ore, 18.5% of India’s copper ore, uranium, mica, bauxite, granite, limestone, silver, graphite, magnetite, and dolomite are located in Jharkhand.

When it comes to coking coal, uranium, and pyrite, Jharkhand is the only Indian state that produces all three. Jharkhand has the second-highest resource of iron ore (hematite) in India, at 25.7%.

Political Conditions Of Jharkhand

The Government of Jharkhand, which is sometimes referred to as the State Government of Jharkhand or simply State Government in the state’s 24 individual districts, is the highest governing body in the state of Jharkhand in India.

There are three branches of government: the executive, headed by the Governor of Jharkhand, the judicial system, and the legislature.

The President of India, acting on the recommendation of the central government, appoints the Governor to lead the state of Jharkhand, as he does with all other Indian states. The governor’s role is mostly symbolic.

As the country’s leader, the Chief Minister has broad discretion over policymaking and administration.

The Jharkhand Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) and state government offices are located in Ranchi, the state capital. One court with statewide authority is the Jharkhand High Court in Ranchi.

Presently, Jharkhand has a single chamber of government, the Legislative Assembly, which has 81 seats (M.L.A). Unless dissolved before then, its mandate will last for five years.

Education And Literacy In Jharkhand

The state of Jharkhand’s efforts to improve the quality of life for its citizens has prioritised educational opportunities. The literacy rate has been steadily increasing, passing the 50% mark by the turn of the 21st century after increasing by more than 10% in the 1990s.

Ranchi University (1960), Birsa Agriculture University (1981) in Kanke, Sido Kanhu Murmu University (1992) in Dumka, and Vinoba Bhave University (1992) in Hazaribag are only a few of the many universities in the state of Jharkhand.

There are also several universities and institutes of higher learning that focus on engineering, labour studies, the legal system, medicine, and other disciplines. These include the Xavier Labour Relations Institute (1949) in Jamshedpur, the Birla Institute of Technology (1955) in Ranchi, and the Indian School of Mines (1926) in Dhanbad.

Other notable institutions include the Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (1950) and the Birsa Institute of Technology. Jharkhand’s burgeoning manufacturing sector can thank the Indo-Danish Tool Room (1991) in Jamshedpur, which was funded in part by the Danish government, as well as similar facilities in Ranchi and Dumka.

All About The Capital Of Jharkhand

The state of Jharkhand’s capital is Ranchi. The Jharkhand movement, which sought independence for the tribal areas of present-day Chhattisgarh, eastern Bihar, and West Bengal, was headquartered in Ranchi.

Karnataka

Karnataka is a state located in southern India. It is bordered by Maharashtra to the north, Goa to the northwest, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the southwest.

The state capital is Bengaluru, which is also the largest city in the state. Karnataka has a diverse economy, with agriculture, manufacturing and services sectors playing important roles. The main agricultural products include rice, ragi, jowar, maize, groundnut, and sugarcane. The state is also known for its rich cultural heritage and history.

Bengaluru is known as the IT hub of India, which is home to many multinational companies and start-ups. The state is also rich in minerals such as iron ore, manganese, and gold. The population of Karnataka is around 61 million.

History Of Karnataka

Karnataka’s history spans millennia. The history, culture, and civilization of Karnataka and the Indian subcontinent have been shaped by several great empires and dynasties.

The Kannada-speaking Chindaka Nagas of central India Gangas, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Vengi, and Yadava Dynasty of Devagiri encouraged native languages.

In mediaeval and early modern Karnataka, the Vijayanagara Empire and Bahmani Sultanate ruled. It split into five Deccan Sultanates. In 1565, Deccan Sultanates defeated Vijayanagara.

Maratha rulers governed most of Karnataka in the 17th and 18th century. Maratha rule was strongest in northern Karnataka. Chhatrapati Shivaji commanded the first Maratha expeditions. In the 1780s, Mysore captured Southern Karnataka as Maratha authority waned.

After the Anglo-Mysore Wars, Company Rule in India began. The Bombay Presidency, Mysore Kingdom, and Nizam of Hyderabad shared Karnataka.

The States Reorganization Act, of 1956 consolidated the Kannada-speaking territories of Hyderabad State, Madras State, and Mysore State after India gained independence in 1947. Karnataka was renamed in 1973.

Geographical Aspect Of Karnataka

Karnataka is between 11.5 and 18.5 degrees North and 74 and 78.5 degrees East. It sits on a tableland where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges to meet the Nilgiri hill complex in the western Deccan Peninsula of India. The state borders Maharashtra, Goa, the Arabian Sea, Kerala, Tamilnadu, and Andhra Pradesh. Karnataka is 750 km north-south and 400 km east-west.

Karnataka is ninth in size among major States with 1,91,791 sq. km, 5.83 per cent of the country’s 32.88 lakh sq. km. The population was 527 lakhs in 2001. Karnataka ranks ninth in population and has 275 people per sq. km in 2001, compared to 324 in India.

For meteorological purposes, the state has been divided into three sub-divisions: Coastal Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada Districts), North Interior Karnataka (Belgaum Bidar, Bijapur, Dharwad, Gulbarga, and Raichur Districts), and South Interior Karnataka (the remaining Districts of Bangalore Rural, Bangalore, Bellary, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Kodagu, Hassan, Kolar, Mysore, Mandya, Shimoga and Tumkur Districts).

The state has three seasonal climates. Winter is January–February, and summer is March–May. The post-monsoon season is October–December.

From October to March, the post-monsoon and winter seasons, the entire state is pleasant save for a few rainy spells caused by the north-east monsoon in the south-eastern regions of the state from October to December. Hot, dry April and May are miserable. Humidity and temperature make June weather uncomfortable. Due to lower daytime temperatures, July, August, and September are more tolerable, although humidity remains excessive.

All About The Economy Of Karnataka

Karnataka is one of India’s fastest-growing states, with an anticipated 9.5% GSDP growth in 2021–22. Karnataka’s 2022–2023 GSDP is $240 billion. Karnataka had the highest GDP and per capita GDP growth in the recent decade. In 2008–09, the tertiary sector generated 55% of GSDP (US$31.6 billion), followed by the secondary sector (US$17 billion) and the primary sector (US$9.5 billion). 

In the last decade, Karnataka’s per capita income in Indian Rupees rose to sixth place, surpassing all other Indian states.

Karnataka got US$2,026.4 million in Foreign Direct Investment in 2008–09, ranking third in India. Karnataka had 4.57% unemployment in 2004, compared to 5.99% nationally. Karnataka had 4.4% inflation in 2006–07, lower than the national average.

Between 2011-12 and 2017-18, the state’s GSDP expanded 13.11 per cent to 12.69 trillion (US$196.88 billion) and the NSDP grew 12.83 per cent to 11.45 trillion (US$177.68 billion).

Political Conditions Of Karnataka

The Indian National Congress, Janata Dal (Secular), and Bharatiya Janata Party dominate Karnataka politics. From May 2018 to July 2019, the Janata Dal (Secular)-Indian National Congress combination ruled the state. H.D. Kumaraswamy of the Janata Dal (Secular) was chief minister from 23 May 2018 to 23 July 2019. BJP’s Basavaraj Bommai formed the government on July 26, 2019.

Karnataka has 28 Lok Sabha seats with 28 MPs. Karnataka has sent several lawmakers and bureaucrats to the centre. 1996 Indian Prime Minister Deve Gowda was from Hassan. Chitradurga’s experienced Congressman and 9-time MP C. K. Jaffer Sharief was India’s Railway Minister. Vice President and acting President B. D. Jatti from Bijapur. Chitradurga’s S.Nigalingappa led Congress I.

Education and Literacy In Karnataka

The literacy rate in Karnataka was 75.60 per cent in 2011, with 82.8 per cent of males and 68.1 per cent of females being literate.

Among the top 10 universities in India, NIRF 2020 recognised the Indian Institute of Science and the Manipal Academy of Higher Education. The state is home to several prestigious universities and research centres in India, including the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in Bangalore, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka in Surathkal, and the National Law School of India University in Bangalore.

With 8.495 million pupils and 252,875 instructors in primary schools in March 2006, Karnataka was home to a total of 54,529 schools.

There are three distinct types of educational facilities in the state: public, private (with government funding), and private (without such funding) (no financial aid is provided). Kannada and English are the two most commonly used languages in classrooms.

All About The Capital Of Karnataka

Bengaluru is Karnataka’s capital. It is India’s third-most populated city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. On the Deccan Plateau in southern India. India’s highest major city is nearly 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level.

The Western Gangas, Cholas, and Hoysalas ruled Bangalore until 1537 CE, when Kempé Gowdā, a feudal lord under the Vijayanagara Empire, erected a mud fort that would become contemporary Bangalore.

The Mughals took Bangalore from the Marāthās in 1638 and sold it to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty. After winning the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja. The Princely State of Mysore, a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj, made the old city its capital.

The British moved their cantonment to Bangalore outside the ancient city in 1809, and a British India-governed town emerged around it. Bangalore was the capital of Mysore State from 1947 to 1956, when Karnataka was created. The city and cantonment of Bangalore united into one urban centre in 1949. In 2006, Bengalūru became the city’s official Kannada name.

Bangalore is known as the “Silicon Valley of India” or “IT capital of India” since it exports the most IT. The city houses ISRO, Infosys, Wipro, and HAL. Bangalore, India’s second-fastest-growing metropolis, is diversified.

It houses many Indian educational and research institutions, including the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), the Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), the National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU), and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS).

State-owned aerospace and defence companies like Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics, and National Aerospace Laboratories are in the city. Kannada films are made here.

Kerala

Kerala is a state located on the southwestern coast of India. It is known for its beautiful beaches, backwaters, and tropical landscapes, as well as its rich cultural heritage. The state is also known for its high literacy rate and social development indicators.

Kerala’s official language is Malayalam and its capital is Thiruvananthapuram. The state has a diverse population, with a mix of Hindu, Muslim and Christian communities. Agriculture, tourism and Fishing Industries are the major economic activities of the state.

History Of Kerala

Ashoka’s 3rd-century BCE rock inscription mentions Keralaputra. Greeks and Romans prized this region’s spices in the past century BCE (especially pepper). In the first five centuries CE, the region was part of Tamilakam, the Tamils’ realm, and was sometimes ruled by the eastern Pandya, Chola, and Chera dynasties. According to local Christian legend, St. Thomas the Apostle visited Kerala in the 1st century, and Jewish immigrants arrived.

Arab traders brought Islam to Kerala in the 8th century. Malayalam developed and Hinduism flourished under the Kulashekhara kingdom (c. 800–1102).

The 11th and 12th century Cholas ruled Kerala. Ravi Varma Kulashekhara of Venad ruled southern India briefly in the early 14th century. After his death, Kerala became a collection of fighting chieftaincies, with Calicut (now Kozhikode) in the north and Venad in the south being the most significant.

Geographical Aspect Of Kerala

Kerala is on India’s southwest coast, near the equator. Our tropical paradise, God’s Own Country, borders the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. It stretches for about 38,863 sq.km. and spans North latitudes 8o18′ and 12o48′ and East longitudes 74o52′ and 77o22′. The state has a 590 km coast and a width of 11–121 km.

Kerala has 44 rivers—41 west-flowing and 3 east-flowing. All are Western Ghats-born. West flows into the Arabian Sea while East flows into the Bay of Bengal. Valapattanam, Chaliar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha, Chalakudy, Periyar, Pamba, Achancoil, and Kalladayar are the major rivers (121 Kms.)

All About The Economy Of Kerala

Kerala has the 9th largest economy in India, with a GSP of 9.78 lakh crore (US$131.98 billion) in 2020–2021. Kerala has the sixth-highest per-capita GSP in India at 205,484 (US$2,773.08). In 2019–20, the state’s GSVA was 63% tertiary, 28% secondary, and 8% primary.

Economists, political scientists, and sociologists call Kerala’s high GDP, productivity, and development the “Kerala Phenomenon” or “Kerala Model”. Kerala’s land reforms and social upliftment of entire communities started during E. M. S. Namboodiripad’s first democratic government continued under successive governments.

Kerala’s economy is “democratic socialist welfare state”-based. Financial Express uses a “Money Order Economy”. Kerala, the second-most urbanised major state in India with 47.7% urban population according to the 2011 Census of India, has endeavoured to establish a pan-state economy rather than focusing on a few cities. According to the 2013 Reserve Bank of India Annual Report, Kerala ranks second only to Goa in poverty.

Political Conditions Of Kerala

India’s most politicised state is Kerala. The nation’s most politically savvy population actively participates in state politics.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist)-led Left Democratic Front (LDF) and the Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) have dominated Kerala politics since the late 1970s. Since 1982, these two coalitions have alternated power. The 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election gave the LDF 92/140 seats.

The political partnership has stabilised, and with few exceptions, coalition allies remain faithful. Since 1979, these two fronts have traded power.

Kerala is socialist, hence Communist parties have made tremendous inroads. Kannur and Palakkad are Communist strongholds in Malabar. Though the UDF has won multiple times, trade union-heavy Kollam and Alapuzha districts favour Left parties. In the 2016 Kollam local body election, the CPI(M)-led LDF defeated UDF and NDA 11–0. CPIM and CPI are the two main Communist parties.

Since pre-Independence, Kerala has been dominated by the Indian National Congress, which leads the UDF coalition. Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, and parts of Idukki are strongly influenced by the Congress party.

The Bharatiya Janata Party, which leads India, is active in Kerala but not in any alliance. It has no elected Parliament member, lost its one Legislative Assembly member in the 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, and elected representatives in all Corporations, many Municipal Councils, and several Local Panchayats. Thiruvananthapuram and Kasaragod favour the party.

Education And Literacy In Kerala

India’s most politicised state is Kerala. The nation’s most politically savvy population actively participates in state politics.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist)-led Left Democratic Front (LDF) and the Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) have dominated Kerala politics since the late 1970s. Since 1982, these two coalitions have alternated power. The 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election gave the LDF 92/140 seats.

The political partnership has stabilised, and with few exceptions, coalition allies remain faithful. Since 1979, these two fronts have traded power.

Kerala is socialist, hence Communist parties have made tremendous inroads. Kannur and Palakkad are Communist strongholds in Malabar. Though the UDF has won multiple times, trade union-heavy Kollam and Alapuzha districts favour Left parties. In the 2016 Kollam local body election, the CPI(M)-led LDF defeated UDF and NDA 11–0. CPIM and CPI are the two main Communist parties.

Since pre-Independence, Kerala has been dominated by the Indian National Congress, which leads the UDF coalition. Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, and parts of Idukki are strongly influenced by the Congress party.

The Bharatiya Janata Party, which leads India, is active in Kerala but not in any alliance. It has no elected Parliament member, lost its one Legislative Assembly member in the 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, and elected representatives in all Corporations, many Municipal Councils, and several Local Panchayats. Thiruvananthapuram and Kasaragod favour the party.

All About The Capital Of Kerala

Tiruvanantapuram (or Thiruvananthapuram) is the capital of Kerala state in southwestern India. It was originally known as Trivandrum. It lies on a coastal plain beside the Arabian Sea, with a few scattered hills inland.

When Raja Martanda Varma, ruler of the Travancore state, declared the city its capital in 1745, the population boomed. British colonisers shortened the ancient name of the city, Thiruvananthapuram, to Trivandrum, which was re-adopted in the early 21st century.

Minerals, sugar, textiles, and handicrafts are only few of the products of Thiruvananthapuram’s manufacturing sector. Coastal areas contribute significantly to the economy through activities like fishing and rice and coconut agriculture.

The city of Thiruvananthapuram serves as a port, airport, and transportation centre. It is home to the University of Kerala (1937) and the several colleges and technical institutes that make up the aforementioned institution. There are also zoological gardens, an observatory, an art gallery, and a museum there.

An important Hindu pilgrimage site, this massive fort has multiple palaces as well as a shrine to the god Vishnu. In 2001, there were 744,983 people living in the city proper, with an additional 889,635 in the urban agglom, and in 2011, there were 743,691 people living in the city proper, with an additional 1,679,754 in the urban agglom.

Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is a state located in central India. It is the second-largest state in the country by area and the fifth-largest by population. The state capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore. Madhya Pradesh is known for its rich cultural heritage and history, as well as its natural beauty, including national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The economy of the state is primarily based on agriculture, but it also has a growing industrial sector.

History Of Madhya Pradesh

Ancient, mediaeval, and contemporary times can be distinguished in the history of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Indigenous communities of Madhya Pradesh like the Nanda, Mauryan, and Gupta empires fought for control of the area during antiquity.

The Rajput clans Paramara and Chandela rose to power throughout the Middle Ages; the Chandela are most known for building the temples at Khajuraho. During this time, the Malwa Sultanate was also in power.

In Madhya Pradesh, the modern period saw the development of the Mughal and Maratha empires, and then the British.

Gwalior, Indore, and Bhopal, three former British princely states, are now all a part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. India finally won its independence from Britain in 1947, but their dominion lasted until the middle of the twentieth century. Chhattisgarh was separated from Madhya Pradesh in the year 2000. Madhya Pradesh was created in 1956.

Geographical Aspect Of Madhya Pradesh

The state of Madhya Pradesh is the second largest in India, covering an area of 3,08,245 square kilometres. Central India is the site in question. It shares borders with Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south, and Gujarat and Rajasthan to the west.

According to the 2011 census, Madhya Pradesh has a total population of 7.27 crore, with men making up 3.76 crore and women 3.51 crore. Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes make up 15.54 and 21.04 per cent of the total population of the State, respectively.

As the state’s official language, Hindi enjoys widespread use throughout Madhya Pradesh. Along with Hindi, regional languages such as Bundeli, Bagheli, Nimari, Marathi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Malwi are widely spoken. In addition to English, several additional languages are spoken.

According to the 2011 census, 90.9% of the state’s people identified as Hindu, with the remaining 6.6% as Muslims, 0.8% as Jain, 0.3% as Buddhist, 0.3% as Christian, and 0.2% as Sikh.

Many people in the state rely on agriculture for their living. The state’s primary agricultural products are soybeans, wheat, paddy, jowar, maize, gramme, mustard, tuar, etc. The state is home to numerous rivers, including the Narmada, Tapti, Chambal, Betwa, Shipra, Tawa, Ken, Sone, and Penchrivers.

All About The Economy Of Madhya Pradesh

When discussing the progress of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, economists often talk about the state’s economy. Its GDP increased by 12% in 2011–12, earning it recognition from President Pranab Mukherjee in January 2013. This expansion was due in large part to improvements in the areas of tourism, healthcare, and infrastructure.

While agriculture still accounts for a large portion of Madhya Pradesh’s economy, the state is making great progress in the industrial and service sectors as well. The state’s most prosperous areas include Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, and Gwalior.

Political Conditions Of Madhya Pradesh

The Government of Madhya Pradesh (often referred to as the State Government of Madhya Pradesh or just the State Government) is the highest governing body in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and its 52 districts.

The governor of Madhya Pradesh presides over the executive, legislative, and judicial branches that make up the state government. Chhattisgarh, formerly part of the state of Maharashtra, was separated from it in 2000 to form its own independent government.

The president of India, acting on the advice of the Central government, appoints a governor to serve as the head of state of Madhya Pradesh, as is the case with all other Indian states. The role of the governor is mostly symbolic.

The prime minister holds the position of head of government and has broad authority over the country’s executive and monetary systems. The Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) and the state’s administrative headquarters are both located in Bhopal, the state capital.

Present-day Madhya Pradesh has a one-house legislature. There are 231 total members of the Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha; 230 MLAs elected at-large from single-seat constituencies and 1 nominated member. Assuming it isn’t dissolved before then, it will last for 5 years.

Official government business in Madhya Pradesh was conducted in Hindi only as of 1 February 2016, and authorities were instructed not to harass workers who are unable to speak English.

The Madhya Pradesh Assembly passed a bill on 4 December 2017 that would have resulted in the death penalty for anyone convicted of raping a girl aged 12 or younger.

Education And Literacy In Madhya Pradesh

According to the 2016 census, the literacy rate of Madhya Pradesh is 69.32 percent, continuing an upward trend. That figure is comprised of a 78.73 percent male literacy rate and a 59.24 percent female literacy rate. In 2001, 63.74 percent of Madhya Pradesh residents could read and write; men had a 76.06 percent literacy rate while women had a 50.29 percent rate.

The overall number of literate people in Madhya Pradesh is 42,851,169; males make up 25,174,328 of that figure, while females make up 17,676,841.

All About The Capital Of Madhya Pradesh

M.P.Govt. Notification No.2477/1977/Sa/One/ dated 13th September 1972 created Bhopal district from the former Sehore District of Bhopal division. Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh and the district seat, is the inspiration for the district’s moniker. Bhopal was formerly known by the name Bhojpal, from whence the modern name Bhopal was derived.

It is commonly believed that a minister of Raja Bhoj, the Parmar monarch of Dhar, constructed the enormous dam that today holds up the Bhopal city lakes, hence the city’s name, Bhopal.

There is a widespread belief that this king is responsible for the even more impressive feat of engineering that originally supported the Tal (lake). However, the name is always pronounced Bhupal, and Dr Fleet believes it comes from the word for “king,” Bhupala. The usual derivation is an example of the searching for meaning that is so typical in such situations.

The lake used to be much larger, but now just a fraction of it is visible as “Bada Talab,” which literally means “upper lake.” The Bhopal lake has been the subject of a well-known proverb for quite some time now: “Talon mein tal Bhopal tal, baki sab tallaiya.”

Maharashtra

A large chunk of the Deccan Plateau is part of the Indian state of Maharashtra, which is located on the western peninsula. The state of Maharashtra is the most populous one in India and the second most populated administrative division in the world.

When the bilingual Bombay State, which had existed since 1956, was divided into the majority Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and the majority Gujarati-speaking Gujarat on May 1, 1960, this new state was born.

The Marathi people are the dominant ethnolinguistic group in Maharashtra, and the Marathi language is the state’s official language. Mumbai, the most populous urban region in India, serves as the state capital, while Nagpur, the winter capital and site of the winter session of the state legislature, is one of the state’s 36 districts.

There are two significant rivers in the state: the Godavari and the Krishna. The state’s forests account for 16.47% of the state’s total land mass. Grain crops are grown on around 60% of the state’s arable land in the Deccan region, rice in the coastal Konkan, and other heavy rainfall areas.

History Of Maharashtra

The western part of India is home to the state of Maharashtra. It has the third-largest land area in India and is the second-most populous state in the country. The state was not formally constituted until 1960 CE, but the region it now encompasses has a history reaching back to between 1300 and 700 BCE.

Before India gained its independence, it was ruled by a number of different dynasties and entities, such as the Maurya, the Western Satraps, the Satavahana dynasty, the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Western Chalukyas, the Bahamanis, the Deccan sultanates, the Mughals, the Maratha Empire, which Shivaji founded, and the British. The state is littered with the remnants of these monarchs’ palaces, temples, cemeteries, and fortresses.

During the early 20th century, while India was fighting for its independence from Britain, the British controlled regions of Bombay presidency, the Central Provinces, and Berar. Numerous British vassal states were located there. The former state of Hyderabad was the largest and encompassed a considerable portion of present-day India. Kolhapur, Miraj, Sangli, Aundh, Bhor, and Sawantwadi were some of the other states included in the Deccan States Agency.

After India gained its independence from Britain in 1947, the state of Maharashtra was formally established in 1960 in response to a movement to establish a Marathi-speaking state in the years prior.

Geographical Aspect Of Maharashtra

The ancient Prakrit language Maharashtri seems to be the source of the name Maharashtra, the home of the Marathi people. It has been debated whether this name is a distortion of the term ‘Maha Kantara’ (the Great Forest), another name for Dandakaranya, or whether it simply reflects that the area was once home to the Mahars and Rattas.

Located in the middle of the Indian peninsula, with access to the Arabian Sea via the port of Mumbai, the state of Maharashtra is remarkably physically uniform due to its underlying geology. The state’s major physical feature is a series of plateaus. Slopes gently descend to the east and southeast from the western upturned rims of the Maharashtra Desh, which rise to form the Sahyadri Range.

Various plateaux, including those of Ahmednagar, Buldana, and Yavatmal, have been sculpted by the major rivers and their master tributaries into alternating broad-river valleys and intervening higher lever interfluves.

Sahyadri Mountains form the geographic centre of Maharashtra. Typically reaching a height of around 1000 m, it plunges precipitously westward into the Konkan in the form of cliffs. Towards the east, the hill land gradually descends through a transitional zone called Mawal, before finally reaching the plateau level. The Sahyadri Range is easily recognisable because of the sequence of plateaus that comprise the range’s crown.

The Konkan is a narrow coastal lowland, at most 50 kilometres wide, that sits between the Arabian Sea and the Sahyadri Range. The average elevation is below 200 metres, but this is by no means a flat country. The Konkan is extremely shattered, with low laterite plateaus alternating with small, steep-sided valleys.

The Satpudas, a chain of hills along the northern border, and the Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri Ranges, a chain of mountains on the eastern border, not only create physical barriers that make travel difficult but also mark the natural boundaries of the state.

All About The Economy Of Maharashtra

The economy of the state of Maharashtra is the largest in India. It’s a highly urbanised Indian state.

Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is regarded as the financial hub of India with the headquarters of practically all major banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and mutual funds being headquartered in the city.

The city is home to the Bombay Stock Exchange, the largest and oldest stock exchange in India and all of Asia. The state of Maharashtra is home to the headquarters of more than 41 per cent of the S&P CNX 500’s largest companies.

Maharashtra is India’s second most industrialised state producing 20% of national industrial production. The industry contributes close to 46% of GSDP. Many of Maharashtra’s cities are home to software parks, and the state is the world’s second-largest exporter of software (at over 80,000 crores per year).

A large portion of the state still relies on agriculture, despite its advanced industrial infrastructure. 24.14% of the working-age population is involved in agriculture and allied activities.

Political Conditions Of Maharashtra

Maharashtra, located in western India, is the country’s third-largest state in terms of land area. It has around 112 million people living in it, with its largest city, Mumbai, home to almost 18 million. Nagpur is the winter capital of Maharashtra.

The parliamentary system serves as the basis for the government structure of the state. Large city councils, district councils (Zila Parishad), sub-district councils (Taluka), and local parish councils all share in the devolution of authority (Gram panchayat). Because of their large population, the Maratha-Kunbi have tremendous influence in state politics.

In the state, voters can choose between national and regional parties that cater to specific communities (such as those of a particular religion, caste, or socioeconomic status).

Education And Literacy In Maharashtra

The most recent population census puts Maharashtra’s literacy rate at 82.34 percent, continuing an upward trend. There are 88.38% of literate males and 75.87% of literate females. In 2001, 76.88% of Maharashtra residents could read and write; this included 85.97% of males and 67.03% of females.

The total number of literate people in Maharashtra is 81,554,290; 45,257,584 males and 36,296,706 females.

All About The Capital Of Maharashtra

Mumbai (previously Bombay) serves as the capital of Maharashtra and is an island metropolis on the western coast that is accessible by both road and rail. The state of Maharashtra, often referred to as “the gateway to India,” is a major economic and industrial hub that has also played a pivotal role in the country’s political and social development.

When compared to other Indian states, Maharashtra ranks at the top in agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, transportation, and education. Ancient culture, once completely veiled by British control, has been preserved mostly through the medium of a robust literary heritage.

There is a strong sense of solidarity among Maharashtrians thanks in large part to the shared literature written in Marathi, the state’s primary language. The extent of 118,800 square kilometres (307,690 square km). Population in (2011) was about 112,372,972.

Manipur

The state capital of Manipur is the city of Imphal, and it is located in Northeast India. It is bounded to the north by Nagaland, to the south by Mizoram, and to the west by Assam, all of which are Indian states.

Manipur shares boundaries with the Sagaing Region to the east and the Chin State to the south, both of which are in Myanmar. The total land area of the state is a whopping 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi).

For over two thousand five hundred years, Manipur has served as a hub for trade and cultural interaction between East and Southeast Asia. It facilitates the movement of people, cultures, and faiths from the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, the Arctic, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

History Of Manipur

Archaeological findings, mythology, and historical accounts all provide light on ancient Manipur (Kangleipak).

To begin with, let’s go back to 3100 BC when Polo (Meitei: Sagol Kangjei) first appeared on the scene. In 1891, Manipur was the very last sovereign state to be absorbed into British India, and as such, it became a princely state under British authority.

Wars were fought in Manipur between the Japanese and the Allies during World War II. Following the war, Maharaja Bodhachandra formally merged his kingdom into India by signing the Treaty of Accession. In 1956 it became a union territory, and in 1972 it became an independent state.

The Government of Manipur appointed a 15-person committee to ensure the veracity of books concerning Manipur’s history, culture, tradition, and geography on September 16, 2022. This was done to prevent the misrepresentation of historical events and cultural practices.

Manuscripts on the aforementioned topics must be submitted to the Director of Higher Education and the University of Manipur for clearance before they may be published; otherwise, the authors risk facing legal repercussions.

Geographical Aspect Of Manipur

The states of Nagaland and Mizoram to the north, Myanmar to the east, and the Cachar district of Assam to the west all border Manipur. The state’s topography can be roughly broken down into two zones: the hills and the plains.

Manipur’s terrain is greatly influenced by the Himalayas’ eastern wing, especially the lower slopes in that range. Peaks near the boundary between Nagaland and Manipur, for example, reach elevations of more than 3,000 metres. The plains of the state were drained by Barak and its tributaries.

The state is crisscrossed by a network of rivers. Barak, Manipur, Iril, Jiri, Makru, Irang, Khuga, Chapki, Tizo, etc. are only a few examples. Imphal, the state capital, is located on the banks of the Barak River. There are trees covering over 60% of the land. It is only in Manipur that you can find the rare paradise flower known as the Shiroy Lily (Lilium Macklinae).

The climate of the state is typically monsoonal, with variations from tropical to moderate. Because of the abrupt variations in elevation, the weather can shift dramatically in a very short distance. The average annual rainfall in this state is 210 centimetres.

All About The Economy Of Manipur

The economy of Manipur depends on farming, forestry, manufacturing, mining, and tourism. In 1990, the state’s GDP was $8.1 billion, by 1995 it had grown to $16.2 billion, and by 2000 it had risen to $39.2 billion. From 1980 to 1997, the Manipur economy expanded by 12.9 per cent. Both the manufacturing and agriculture industries have been expanding at above 10% annually.

As the primary means of subsistence for the state’s rural population, agriculture is crucial to Manipur’s economy. Manipur cultivates a wide variety of crops, including rice, maize, lentils, and wheat.

Typical farming techniques in the state include Jhumming and terraced farming. Manipur also produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, such as pineapple, orange, mango, lemon, carrot, ladies finger, cabbage, and pea. The agricultural industry in Manipur is crucial to the state’s economy.

Political Conditions Of Manipur

For the Indian state of Manipur and its 16 districts, the highest governing authority is the Government of Manipur. The Governor of Manipur presides over the executive, legislative, and judicial arms that make up the government (Manipur Legislative Assembly).

Manipur’s Governor is appointed by the President of India based on the suggestion of the Central government, as is the case with the other Indian states. The governor’s role is mostly symbolic. As the country’s leader, the Chief Minister has broad discretion over policymaking and administration.

Imphal serves as the seat of government for Manipur and is home to the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly). When legal matters arise inside Manipur State, they are handled by the State’s highest court.

Education And Literacy In Manipur

A recent census found that Manipur’s literacy rate was 76.94%, continuing an improving trend. Literacy rates are 83.58 per cent for men and 70.26 per cent for women. With a total literacy rate of 66.61 per cent in 2001, higher rates of education were achieved by men (75.71 per cent) than women (57.29 per cent).

Manipur has a total of 1,908,476 literate people, with men making up 1,039,858 of that amount and females making up 868,618.

All About The Capital Of Manipur

Located in Northeast India, the city of Imphal serves as the state capital of Manipur. Situated in the Manipur River valley at an elevation of 2,500 feet, it is located in the state’s central region (760 metres).

Before the British colonial era, Imphal served as the royal capital of Manipur. A major Anglo-Indian tactical victory over the Japanese occurred there in 1944 on the Burmese front of World War II. Weaving, brassware, bronze-ware, and other handicrafts have made the city an important trading hub.

In addition to Imphal College and Dhana Manjari College, there is also a technical college and a training centre in this district. Connected by paved highways, Imphal is both accessible from and accessible within Myanmar (Burma).

The North Eastern Railway connects the city to the neighbouring city of Dimapur in Assam. It is home to a runway that provides flights to Guwahati, Assam, and Kolkata (Calcutta, 400 miles (650 km) west-southwest). Most of the people living there are of Manipuri descent. Pop. (2001) 221,492; (2011) 268,243.

Meghalaya

One of India’s seven Northeastern states, Meghalaya translates to “Abode of Clouds” in Sanskrit. It has borders with Assam to the north and east and Bangladesh to the south, and is well-known for its abundant rains, subtropical forests, and variety of wildlife. The western boundary is marked by the Brahmaputra River, sometimes known as the Luit River in the area.

Until 1972, the state was made up of the Assam districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills and Garo Hills. The monsoons bring a lot of rain, and the landscape is mostly hilly.

There are three primary tribal groups that call Meghalaya home: the Khasis, the Garos, and the Jaintias (in order of population).

History Of Meghalaya

Archaeological sites have been discovered in Meghalaya and the surrounding Indian states. The earliest evidence of human habitation in Meghalaya dates back to the Neolithic era.

Discovered Neolithic sites are concentrated in mountainous regions of the Khasi Hills, the Garo Hills, and the states to the south and west, all of which are now home to people who engage in jhum, or nomadic farming, in the form of the ancient Neolithic.

This region of India is home to more than 20,000 distinct rice species. The scant archaeology conducted in the Meghalayan hills hints at human habitation dating back to prehistoric times.

Shah Arifin Rafiuddin, a student of Shah Jalal, moved to the Khasi and Jaintia Hills after the Conquest of Taraf in 1304. There, he spread the monotheistic teachings of Islam. His mazar is located in Meghalaya on top of Laur Hill, but the rest of his khanqah is still in Sarping / Laurergarh on the Bangladeshi border.

It has been theorised that the city of Bhaitbari, initially found and excavated in 1993 by A. K. Sharma, was one of the capitals of the Kamarupa empire (4th-8th century AD), based on the discovery of a fortress of burnt brick with a mud core at the Meghalaya – Assam boundary.

Geographical Aspect Of Meghalaya

The states of Assam to the east, north, and north-west, and Bangladesh to the south and south-west from Meghalaya’s borders. Meghalaya’s central and eastern regions, the Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills are an imposing plateau with undulating grassland, hills, and a river valley. In spite of the abundance of rivers in the state, none of them is suitable for watercraft.

They include the Ildek, Dudnai, Krishnai, Jinari, Didak, Jinjiram, Mahadeo, Moheshkali, and Someshwari rivers. Close to 37.5% of the total land area is covered by trees. Central and eastern Meghalaya enjoy a mild climate year-round, while western Meghalaya is hot and humid year-round. Meghalaya is frequently cloudy and wet because of its high elevation.

The average annual rainfall in the village of Mawsynram is roughly 750 centimetres (nearly 250 inches).

All About The Economy Of Meghalaya

There is a strong emphasis on agriculture in the state’s economy. Rice, millet, corn (maize), potatoes, pepper, chilies, cotton, ginger, jute, betel nuts, fruits (especially oranges and mangoes), and vegetables are the primary crops farmed in Meghalaya. While communal land ownership is prevalent, the soil has been depleted due to the practice of jhum (shifting agriculture).

Meghalaya is rich in undeveloped natural resources such as coal, limestone, kaolin, feldspar, quartz, mica, gypsum, bauxite, and more. The vast majority of India’s sillimanite supply comes from this region, which is renowned for its high-quality sillimanite resources. Several hydroelectric power plants in the state generate electricity, although during dry spells, the state must rely on imported power.

Small-scale cement, plywood, and food product manufacturing are among Meghalaya’s industries.

Weak internal communication has resulted in many regions being unconnected. Meghalaya lacks any sort of railroad infrastructure. From the northern Assam city of Guwahati to the southern Assam city of Karimganj, a major national highway passes directly through the middle of the state. Umroi, located roughly 18 miles (30 km) from Shillong, serves as the hub for a domestic airline operating short-haul, low-capacity services, and in 2008, an airport opened in Tura, located in the western portion of the state.

Political Conditions Of Meghalaya

The Government of Meghalaya also referred to as the State Government of Meghalaya is the highest echelons of government in the eleven districts that make up the Indian state of Meghalaya. Meghalaya’s government is divided into an executive branch headed by the state’s governor, a judicial system, and a legislature.

Meghalaya’s head of state is a Governor, who is appointed by the President of India based on the advice of the Union Government. The role he or she plays is mostly symbolic. Most executive functions are delegated to the Chief Minister, who serves as the government’s head of state. The Meghalayan government is headquartered in Shillong, where the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) and Secretariat are located. In matters pertaining to the State of Meghalaya, the presiding court of appeal is the Meghalaya High Court, which sits in the city of Shillong.

There are now 60 members of the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, which is a unicameral legislature (M.L.A). It will last for 5 years unless it is terminated sooner.

Education and Literacy In Meghalaya

The “community” is an advisory in primary education in Meghalaya. The Meghalaya Directorate of Education lists 6612 primary and upper primary schools, 783 secondary schools, and 112 higher secondary schools. The ASER reports 7% of 6–14-year-olds are unenrolled.

The government resolved the issue, improving education. Meghalaya pioneered Chinese language education. School lunches have improved gross enrollment. The state’s education system follows the national model with 12 years of schooling (10+2+3): seven years of elementary education (four years of primary and three years of Upper Primary for ages 6-11 and 11-14, respectively), followed by two years of secondary and higher secondary education. Meghalaya schools are either CBSE, ICSE, or state-affiliated. Meghalaya ICSE and CBSE schools teach in English.

Meghalaya has 3 central, 1 state, and 10 private universities. The state has 63-degree colleges, 2 engineering colleges, 3 polytechnics, and 7 national institutions. Directorate of Higher & Technical Education administers, governs, and supervises higher education in Meghalaya, including college and university education, technical education, professional education, and vocational education. Many colleges in Shillong offer higher education in engineering, arts and social science, law, commerce, medical science, media, and more. A new National Institute of Technology and six private universities can also open in the state. Aspirants must move to other cities to find work and industries.

All About The Capital Of Meghalaya

Shillong, which is the capital city of Meghalaya, is 1496 metres above sea level. In 1874, Shillong became the capital of Assam. It stayed that way until January 1972, when Meghalaya was made. The name of the capital city comes from a form of the creator called Shyllong.

Mizoram 

Mizoram is a state in northeast India. Its government and capital city are both in Aizawl. The name of the state comes from the self-given name of the native people, “Mizo,” and the word for “land” in the Mizo language, “Ram.” Mizo-ram means “land of the Mizos” because of this. It is the southernmost landlocked state in India’s northeast and shares borders with three of the Seven Sister States: Tripura, Assam, and Manipur. The state also has a border with Bangladesh and Myanmar that is 722 kilometres (449 miles) long.

History Of Mizoram

The history of Mizoram includes everything that has happened in Mizoram, which is in the most remote part of northeast India. It is a history of the Chin people from the Chin State of Burma who moved to different places. But what we know about how they moved west is based on oral history and archaeological inferences, so we can’t say anything for sure.

Around the middle of the 19th century, when the British monarchy controlled the neighbouring areas, written history began. In the middle of the 20th century, religious, political, and cultural changes caused most of the people to join together into one super tribe called Mizo. So, the official name of the place where the Mizos lived became Mizoram.

Geographical Aspect Of Mizoram

The Mizoram ranges’ folded structure is between two shifting tectonic plates (Indian and Burmese Desi Kachar 1974). A 4.3 earthquake occurred 10 km north of Kolasib on 19 April 2011 and a 6.4 on 4 February 2011. Mizoram has the highest seismic zone 5.

Surma (Middle Bhuban Formation), Barail, and Tipam deposits form folded hills or mountainous North South belts with perpendicular faults. Argillaceous and arenaceous sandstones, shale, siltstones, mudstones, and greywacke make up riverbed aluvium.

7 normal and 7 reverse magneto layers (North and South pole reversals) in a 560m-thick Middle Bhuban type rock succession between Bawngkawn and Durtlang indicate a 20-million-year age.

The rock system is weak, unstable, worn, and prone to earthquakes and landslides. Locally, the soft, black-to-grey rock is used for building materials and low-traffic road construction. Clays, sand, and gravel are the only marketable minerals in the River Tlawng beds. High slopes leach sandy loam and clay loam, leaving them permeable and lacking minerals and humus.

Due to Mizoram’s geology, oil and gas exploration has occurred, raising hopes that reserves may be found. France, Russia, Cyprus, and many Indian firms have struck a 12% oil and 10% gas royalty agreement with Mizoram state (April 2009)

All About The Economy Of Mizoram

Mizoram’s per capita income of Rs 308571 makes it one of India’s fastest-growing economies. During the 11th Five Year Plan (2007–2012), Mizoram had the second-highest GSDP growth in Northeast India at 11%, surpassing the objective of 7.8% and the national average of 7.9%. GSDP expanded 5.7% during the 10th Five Year Plan (2002–2007) instead of 5.3%. Agriculture, public administration, and construction drive GSDP. Over the past five years, the tertiary service sector has contributed 58% to 60% of the GSDP.

Political Conditions Of Mizoram

Mizoram’s multi-party democracy is part of India’s politics. Only one MP represents it. The Mizo National Front and the Indian National Congress-affiliated Mizoram Pradesh Congress Committee dominate Mizoram politics. Since 1972, these parties have taken turns to rule.

The Governor of Mizoram is appointed by the Indian President. The Chief Minister and cabinet have real power. The Legislative Assembly majority party or alliance governs. First Mizoram Chief Minister Ch Chhunga. Chief Minister Pu Zoramthanga succeeded Pu Lalthanhawla in 2018.

Chief Secretaries run state bureaucracies. The Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, and various State Civil Services branches report to him.

Education and Literacy In Mizoram

The literacy rate in Mizoram has been on the rise and currently sits at 91.33 per cent, according to the most recent census data. While male literacy is at 93.35 per cent, it is only 89.27 per cent for females. In 2001, Mizoram had an 88.80 per cent literacy rate, with 90.72 per cent of males and 86.75 per cent of females able to read and write.

In fact, there are 848,175 educated people in Mizoram, with men making up 438,529 of those numbers and women making up 409,646.

All About The Capital Of Mizoram

Mizoram’s capital, Aizawl. On a ridge in the north-central region of the state at 2,950 feet, it (900 metres).

The 1950 Assam state included Aizawl. However, Mizo Hills tribes wanted more autonomy. The Mizo National Front’s mid-1960s armed attack on Aizawl’s local government offices was quickly put down by government forces. The violence continued, and in 1972, a section of Assam became Mizoram, with Aizawl as its capital. The city became the state capital of Mizoram in 1987.

State’s largest city is Aizawl. Dense hillside woods supply bamboo and timber. Except in river valleys, where rice, corn (maize), beans, tobacco, cotton, pumpkins, oilseeds, and peanuts (groundnuts) are produced, the soil cover is sparse. Hunting, fishing, poultry, and animal husbandry support agriculture.

The city makes aluminium kitchenware, hand-loomed textiles, and furniture. Diesel stations create electricity. Hand-weaving, blacksmithing, carpentry, basketry, and hatmaking are the principal cottage businesses. The city has a zoo, the State Museum on Macdonald’s Hill, and the Mizoram State Museum, which houses historic treasures, old clothes, and artefacts.

Nagaland

On December 1st, 1963, Nagaland became the 16th state in the Indian Union after a formal inauguration ceremony.


Bordering states are Assam to the west, Myanmar (Burma) to the east, Arunachal Pradesh and a portion of Assam to the north, and Manipur to the south.

In total, there are seventeen major tribes and numerous smaller tribes living within the state’s sixteen (sixteen) administrative districts. In terms of culture, language, and clothing, each group is easily distinguishable from the others.

It is a place where legends live on through word of mouth. Folk melodies honouring forefathers, warriors, and traditional heroes; poetry love songs immortalising ancient tragic love stories; Gospel songs touching your soul (should you be of a religious bent), and current tunes rendered superbly to send your feet a-tappin’ are all a part of life here.

History Of Nagaland

While the early history of Nagaland is lost to time, the Naga tribes, their economy, and their customs are described in the mediaeval chronicles of the neighbouring Ahom kingdom of Assam. Assam was invaded by Burmans from Myanmar in 1816, and the region was ruled by them oppressively until 1826 when the British took control. By 1892, the whole Naga territory (save the hilly Tuensang district in the northeast) was under British rule, putting an end to headhunting and intervillage incursions and ushering in a period of relative peace.

Until the 1970s, the Naga homeland was technically a part of Assam following India’s independence in 1947. However, a robust nationalist movement emerged, with supporters wanting a formal unity of the Naga tribes and opponents calling for complete independence from India.

As a result of a series of violent episodes precipitated by this movement, the Indian government dispatched the military in 1955.

The Naga Hills region of Assam and the Tuensang frontier division to the northeast were unified under a single unit directly managed by the Indian government in 1957 after an agreement was made between Naga leaders and the Indian government.

There was continuous unrest in spite of the deal, with people refusing to work for the Indian government or pay their taxes, and even attacking the army. The Naga People’s Convention in July 1960 also agreed that Nagaland should be recognised as a separate state inside India. Independent Nagaland was formally recognised in 1963, and in 1964, a democratically elected government gained power.

Geographical Aspect Of Nagaland

The Indian state of Nagaland is situated in the rugged terrain of the country’s far northeast. It’s one of India’s tinier states. The Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur to the northeast, Assam to the west and northwest, and Myanmar (Burma) to the east form Nagaland’s external borders.

In the southern section of Nagaland is the state capital, Kohima. Nagaland is almost entirely mountainous. The Naga Hills rise suddenly from the Brahmaputra valley in the north to an elevation of around 2000 feet (610 metres), and then continue to rise as one travels south and southeast, eventually reaching an elevation of more than 6,000 feet (1,830 metres).

Mount Saramati, the tallest peak in the range at 12,552 feet (3,826 metres), merges with the Patkai Range, also part of the Arakan chain, along the Myanmar border. Doyang and Dikhu in the north, Barak in the southwest, and tributaries of the Chindwin River (in Myanmar) in the southeast cut the territory deeply.

Monsoonal conditions (alternating periods of wet and dry) characterise the weather in Nagaland. The southwest monsoon months see the bulk of the year’s average rainfall, which falls between 70 and 100 inches (1,800 and 2,500 mm) (May to September). The average summer temperature is in the low 70s F (about 21-23o C) and the low 100s F (about 38-40o C), while the average winter temperature seldom drops below 40 F (4oC), though frost is common at higher elevations. The majority of the state experiences significant humidity.

All About The Economy Of Nagaland

Nagaland, a state in India’s northeast, has a diverse economy that benefits from a number of industries. Nagaland relies heavily on agriculture. It is estimated that as much as 70% of Nagaland’s overall population works in agriculture. Naga farmers use two distinct kinds of crop production: terrace and jhum farming.

The provision of water is another key business in Nagaland that has contributed much to the expansion of the economy. The water supply department of Nagaland plays a crucial role in the state’s economy by ensuring the distribution of water to the many farms and factories that dot the region.

Fishing, animal husbandry, cow farming, pig and poultry farming, and poultry raising are also important to Nagaland’s economy. Many factories in Nagaland contribute significantly to the state’s economy. Numerous cities and towns around Nagaland are home to the state’s many medium-sized factories, which together bring in a substantial annual income.

Nagaland, as a state, is proud of its abundant mineral resources, which include coal, natural gas, decorative stones, petroleum, marble, nickel, cobalt-chromium-containing magnetite, and so on.

The banks in Nagaland are widely recognised as crucial to the development of the local economy. Nagaland’s tourism sector is widely recognised as an important driver of the region’s economic development. Due to its abundance of cultural and natural attractions, Nagaland welcomes tens of thousands of visitors each.

Nagaland’s booming economy is a visible sign that the state is entering a new, more prosperous era.

Political Conditions Of Nagaland

In 1964, a year after Nagaland became a state, the first administration was established. Former leader P Shilo Ao was succeeded by Neiphiu Rio in the role of chief minister in Nagaland.

The Naga National Democratic Party, the Nagaland People’s Front, and the Nagaland Democratic Party are the three largest political parties in Nagaland. The Indian National Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party, and the Janata Dal (Secular) are all national parties with a local presence in the state. Padmanabha Balakrishna Acharya is the current governor of Nagaland.

Dr Shurhozelie Liezietsu has been formally appointed as the Chief Minister of Nagaland.
The Legislative Assembly of Nagaland has tremendous sway on the state legislature and hence over Nagaland’s governance and politics. It is the speaker’s job to preside over the Nagaland Legislative Assembly. Legislative Assembly Members are Naga voters who were selected to represent specific districts. Nagaland has 60 different Assembly districts.

Education and Literacy In Nagaland

The latest population census shows that the literacy rate in Nagaland has been on the rise, reaching 79.55 per cent. There are 82.75 per cent literate males and 76.11 per cent literate females. The literacy rate of Nagaland was 66.59 per cent in 2001, with male and female literacy rates of 71.16 per cent and 61.46 per cent, respectively.

There are a total of 1,342,434 literate people in Nagaland; this includes 723,957 males and 618,477 females.

All About The Capital Of Nagaland

Kohima, Nagaland’s capital, is the crown jewel of the state and is located in the south at an elevation of 1444 metres above sea level. The districts of Wokha and Peren to the north, Manipur State to the south, and Dimapur and Peren to the west form its borders.

Kohima, the headquarters of Naga Hills District, is one of the state’s eleven districts and one of the oldest (then under Assam). Kohima was designated as the state capital on December 1, 1963, the day that Nagaland was officially recognised as an independent nation.

Since then, Kohima district has given birth three times, the first time being in 1973 with the creation of Phek District, the second time being in 1998 with the creation of Dimapur, and the third time being in 2004 with the creation of Peren District, one of the youngest districts in the state.

Kohima comes from the village of KEWHIRA, from whence the name of the city itself is derived. Kohima village, also known as “Bara Basti,” is located in the city’s current northwestern quadrant and is the second largest village in Asia.

Odisha

Situated on the coast along the Bay of Bengal, Odisha stands for its ancient glory and modern endeavour. Endowed with nature’s bounty, a 482 km stretch of coastline with virgin beaches, serpentine rivers, mighty waterfalls, forest-clad blue hills of Eastern Ghats with rich wild life, Orissa is dotted with exquisite temples, historic monuments as well as pieces of modern engineering feat.

The land, while retaining its pristine glory, also offers the visitors modern amenities. The State of Orissa is like a bridge between northern and southern halves of India, representing multifaceted synthesis. Bhubaneshwar is the state capital.

History Of Odisha

Ancient Kalinga was Odisha. Utkal was another name for this area. Lord Jagannath’s domain is famous. Ashok regretted conquering Kalinga in the 3rd century B.C. Kharavela ruled this state in 2nd century B.C. Orissa faded after his death. Gupta king Samudragupta conquered Odisha in the 4th century A.D. Sasanka ruled Odisha in 610 AD.

After it, Harshavardhan ruled Kanuj. After Ganga Dynasty, various Odia  dynasties governed this realm. Mahashivagupta Yajati II became king in 795 AD, ushering in Orissa’s golden age.

Kharavela’s imperial tradition linked Kalinga, Kangoda, Utkal, and Koshala. Narasingha Dev erected Konark’s, Sun Temple. After the thirteenth century, Delhi’s Muslim kings tried to invade Orissa through Bengal, but the Odisha rulers resisted. The rulers and Mughal emperors succeeded later. Five Muslim monarchs governed Odisha from the mid-16th century until 1592. Marathas ruled Orissa after Mughal fall.

The Marathas lost Odisha to the British, but some princely republics remained. Orissa had 26 such states. British separated Orissa in 1936. Sardar Patel, the builder of Indian unity, merged the Orissa princely states with India after independence. Odisha princely states joined the state in January 1949.

Geographical Aspect Of Odisha

Odisha is the northeastern Indian peninsula’s tenth-largest state. It borders Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, and the Bay of Bengal. The northern plateau, centre river basin, eastern hills, and coastal lowlands make up this state. Odisha has coastal and hilly terrain. Orissa is riverous. Mahanadi, Baitarani, and Brahamani are its major rivers.

Subarnarekha, Rashikulya, Budhabalanga, Vamsadhara, Nagavali. River silt has expanded the area. Besides these rivers, Chilka Lake is large. This state has 30% woodland. The climate is moderate.

Sea winds from the Bay of Bengal cool coastal locations. The southwest monsoon (June–September) brings most of the rainfall, while the northeast monsoon also contributes (October to November). Cyclones sometimes hit the state.

All About The Economy Of Odisha

India’s fastest-growing economy is Odisha’s. The 2014-15 economic survey predicted 8.78% GSDP growth for Odisha. Odisha is transitioning from agriculture to manufacturing and services. Odisha’s GDP has grown by 122.27 per cent in the last six years, according to current estimates (GSDP).

Thus, Odisha grew 6.23 per cent annually.  Odisha attracts FDI. Odisha received 49,527 crores in investment proposals in 2011–12. The Reserve Bank of India reported 53,000 crores (US$8.33 billion) in new FDI commitments in 2012-13.

Political Conditions Of Odisha

In accordance with India’s federal parliamentary representative democracy, the union government of India has supreme authority over the state of Odisha. Odisha, like the other states, has some authority over certain matters that are not federally regulated. Both the nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the regional socialist Biju Janata Dal (BJD) are major players in the state’s multi-party system (BJD). Major representation can also be found among members of the Indian National Congress (INC).

Education and Literacy In Odisha

Education in Odisha, a region of India that has long been overlooked by the federal government, is undergoing fast change. As a result of the development of an Indian Institute of Technology, which had been requested for the past fifty years, Bhubaneswar, the state capital, is quickly becoming a major educational centre in India.

In terms of literacy rates, Odisha has done rather well. Literacy in the state as a whole stands at 73.5%, according to the 2011 Census, just below the national average of 74.04%. Many government-supported educational institutions may be found across Odisha.

All About The Capital Of Odisha

Originally called Bhuvaneshvara, Bhubaneshwar is the state capital of Odisha (Orissa) in eastern India. Located on the Kuakhai River, a tributary of the Mahanandi River, it lies in the state’s eastern section.

Nearby Dhauligiri rock inscription of Mauryan emperor Ashoka at the site of his legendary conquest of the Kalingas depicts Bhubaneshwar’s history from the 3rd century BCE.

Many Hindu kings called this city their provincial capital between the 5th and 10th century CE, and it became a major Shiva temple hub during that time. From the 7th through the 14th century, a wide variety of Orissan architectural styles were represented in its various temples (including the Mukteshwara and Parashurameshwar).

With the capital’s relocation from Cuttack in 1948, the city expanded to include both the historic district, home to some thirty ancient temples, and a newer, more orderly township. The latter is home to the Orissa State Government, the State Museum, Utkal University (which was founded in Cuttack in 1944), and the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology. The city’s focal point is Indira Gandhi Memorial Park.

Punjab

Situated in India’s northwestern corner, the state of Punjab is widely considered to be among the country’s most prosperous. Land of Five Rivers, as Punj (Five) + Aab (Water) forms the name Punjab. The Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum are the five major rivers in Punjab. The rivers once abundant in Punjab are now limited to the Sutlej, Ravi, and Beas. Punjab, a province in Pakistan, now contains both of the other rivers. Majha, Doaba, and Malwa are the three regions that make up the state of Punjab.

Punjab’s economy relies heavily on agriculture. Industries such as the production of scientific equipment, electrical items, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, etc., also rank well.


Despite the economic loss it experienced in 1947, Punjab has made significant progress since gaining independence. Almost two-thirds of the country’s grain crop and a third of its milk crop come from this region.

It’s the country’s primary source of wheat, so it helps ensure the country’s food supply. The people of Punjab have enthusiastically embraced the Green revolution (a significant agricultural endeavour).

Punjabis make up only about 2.5% of the Indian population, but they are one of the country’s most successful ethnic groups. Their standard of living is far higher than the average for the country.

History Of Punjab

Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit turned military leader, temporarily freed the eastern section of the province from Mughal dominion in 1709-10, laying the groundwork for the modern state of Punjab. After Banda Singh’s defeat and execution in 1716, a protracted conflict erupted between the Sikhs and the Mughals and the Afghans. In 1764–1765, the Sikhs had already established their authority.

Punjab was consolidated by Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) into a mighty Sikh monarchy, and he annexed the neighbouring provinces of Multan, Kashmir, and Peshawar (all of which are now fully or partially administered by Pakistan).

After the British East India Company’s armies conquered the Punjab kingdom in 1849, the area became a province under British rule. Nonetheless, the Indian nationalist movement gained traction in the region by the late 19th century.

The 1919 Massacre of Amritsar, in which the British general Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered troops to open fire on a crowd of around 10,000 Indians who had gathered to protest new antisubversion regulations enacted by the British administration, is widely regarded as a watershed moment in the history of the movement.

The British province of Punjab was divided between the newly independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947, with the eastern, smaller portion becoming part of India.

Geographical Aspect Of Punjab

There is guaranteed irrigation for all of the state’s 50,362 hectares (19,445 square miles) of arable land. From 180 metres (590 feet) in the southwest to more than 500 metres (1,600 feet) around the northeast boundary, the area’s elevation varies widely.

Punjab covers an area from around 29°30′ N and 32°32′ E in latitude and 73°55′ E and 76°50′ E in longitude. Punjab is sandwiched between Pakistan to the west, Jammu & Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, and Haryana and Rajasthan to the south.

The state’s climate features a nice mix of summertime humidity, autumnal dampness, and wintertime chill. The three seasons are spaced out far enough that you can appreciate them independently.

Both the summer and winter in Punjab may be brutal. Additionally, the state benefits from regular and substantial precipitation, which helps make it an especially fruitful region. Locations closer to the Himalayas see abundant precipitation, while those further away from the mountains have to contend with dry conditions and high temperatures.

Between the middle of April and the end of June, we have summer. From the beginning of July till the very end of September, Punjab has its rainy season. The chilly season officially begins in October. The winter season officially begins in December, when the temperature begins to drop. This time of year is when the majority of Punjab’s most celebrated holidays occur, including Lohri, Holla Mohalla, Diwali, and Dussehra. The months of October through March are peak travel times in Punjab.

All About The Economy Of Punjab

With a GDP of 5.41 lakh crore (US$68 billion) (FY2020-21), ranking it as the 16th largest in India, and a GDP per capita of US$2360(180,000), ranking it as the 19th in India, Punjab has a thriving economy. Punjab’s GDP per capita growth rate between 2000 and 2010 was the second-lowest among all Indian states and UTs, behind only Manipur.

This is in contrast to its position as the top in India in 1981 and the fourth in 2001. While the average life expectancy in India increased from 69.4 to 71.4 years between 1992 and 2014, Punjab’s rank dropped from first to sixth.

Agriculture and other forms of small and medium-scale business are the backbones of the state’s economy. According to the 2018 Human Development Index for Indian States and Union Territories, Punjab ranks ninth overall.

Political Conditions Of Punjab

Indian National Congress, Aam Aadmi Party, and Shiromani Akali Dal (Badal) dominate politics in reorganised Punjab. Despite its 21% population, Punjab’s Chief Minister has been Jatt Sikh since 1967. Giani Zail Singh, the Chief Minister of Punjab from 17 March 1972 to 30 April 1977, was from the Ramgarhia community, which has 6% of the state’s population, and Charanjit Singh Channi, who held the position for 111 days from 20 September 2021 to 16 March 2022, was from the Scheduled Caste (Dalit) community, which has 32%.

Kanshi Ram of Rupnagar created the Bahujan Samaj Party, which is prominent in Doaba. BSP won 9 Vidhan Sabha seats in 1992. BSP won 3 Punjab Lok Sabha seats in 1996 and just Garhshanker in 1997 Vidhan Sabha elections. Communist parties also impact Malwa.

In the 2014 general elections, the first-time contesting Aam Aadmi Party won 4 out of 13 Punjab seats by winning 34 of the 117 assembly constituencies, coming second in 7, third in 73, and fourth in the remaining 3 sectors. Punjab Aam Aadmi Party support increased afterwards. Bhagwant Mann became Chief Minister after the AAP won 92 of 117 Punjab Assembly seats in 2022. Congress gets 18 seats.

Education and Literacy In Punjab

In the most recent census, the literacy rate in Punjab was found to be 75.84 percent, indicating an increasing trend. The literacy rate is 80.44 percent for men and 70.73 percent for women. The literacy rate in Punjab was 69.65% in 2001, with 75.23% of males and 63.36% of females able to read and write.

Actual literacy rates in Punjab are 18.707 million, with male rates at 10.436.056 and female rates at 8.271.081.

All About The Capital Of Punjab

If you’re looking for Punjab’s capital, it’s in Chandigarh. The city of Chandigarh gets its name, Chandi Mandir, from a historic temple in the area. Chandi, a Hindu goddess, is the focus of worship at this temple. Located on the border between Haryana and Punjab, Chandigarh serves as the capital of both states. Chandigarh, Haryana’s capital, and the state of Haryana are both explored in greater depth here.

  1. A city, a district, and a union territory, Chandigarh is located in India.
  2. The state of Haryana forms Chandigarh’s eastern neighbour.
  3. Punjab forms the city of Chandigarh’s northern, western, and southern borders.
  4. The city of Chandigarh has gained international renown for its stunning architecture and urban planning.
  5. The Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier was responsible for its creation.
  6. Chandigarh is one of the earliest planned cities in independent India.
  7. Among the top cities in the world in terms of the Human Development Index is the Indian capital of Chandigarh (HDI).
  8. According to one of 2015’s happiness indices, Chandigarh is India’s happiest major city.

In Chandigarh, you’ll hear English spoken everywhere. Hindi is the most common language spoken, followed by Punjabi.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan is India’s largest state. Northwest state is culturally diverse. Most cities have Indus Valley Civilization ruins, temples, forts, and fortresses. Rajasthan’s nine regions—Ajmer State, Hadoti, Dhundhar, Gorwar, Shekhawati, Mewar, Marwar, Vagad, and Mewat—are equally rich in legacy and art. These regions’ histories parallel the states.

Bird-rich Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur is a world heritage site. The state also features Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur and Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar.

Rajputana was integrated with India on March 30, 1949, forming the state. The state capital Jaipur was the largest city.

Rajasthan’s early rulers, Maharanas, and Nawabs were great. Prithiviraj Chouhan, Hemu, Akbar, Maharana Udai Singh, Maharana Pratap, Raja Maan Singh, and others were notable.

Numerous forts and palaces in Rajasthan’s past kingdoms are complemented by Muslim and Jain architecture.

History Of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has settled roughly 5,000 years ago. This area was inhabited during post-ice age floods. Matsya kingdom was here. Indus Valley Civilization was there. Pratihars, Chauhans of Ajmer, Guhilot (also known as Gohil) and Sisodias of Mewar, Shekhawats of Shekhawati Sikar, Rathores of Marwar, and others rose in the early mediaeval period. And some Jat kingdoms: Sinsinwars of Bharatpur, Deswals, Bamraulias and Ranas of Dholpur, Godaras, Saharans, Punias, Johiya of Jangaldesh.

Arab invasions faced the Pratihar Empire during the 8th through 11th centuries.

The Pratihara army prevented the Arabs from expanding beyond Sindh, their lone conquest for about 300 years.

The Kachwaha went to Rajputana after Matsya empire. The Kachwahas aided their Rajput allies in several bloody conflicts, including the First and Second Battles of Tarain.

Kachwahas last fought for Rajputs under Rana Sanga of Chittor at the Battle of Khanwa.

Geographical Aspect Of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has the Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range, which extends from southwest to northeast for more than 850 miles (530 mi).

Mount Abu is near the southwestern extremity of the range, separated from the main ranges by the West Banas River, although a series of broken ridges continues into Haryana in the direction of Delhi as outcrops like Raisina Hill and the ridges farther north. Three-fifths of Rajasthan is northwest of the Aravallis, with two-fifths east and south.

East and southeast of the Aravalli Range are fertile and well-watered. Teak, Acacia, and other trees grow in the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion. The hilly Vagad region, home to Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, and Banswara, borders Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in southern Rajasthan.

Vagad is Rajasthan’s wettest and most forested region, excluding Mount Abu. Udaipur and Chittaurgarh are in Mewar, north of Vagad. Hadoti, bordering Madhya Pradesh, is southeast. Jaipur is in Dhundhar, north of Hadoti and Mewar. Rajasthan’s easternmost Mewat borders Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Banas and Chambal, Ganges tributaries, drain eastern and southeastern Rajasthan.

All About The Economy Of Rajasthan

Agriculture, mining, and tourism drive Rajasthan’s mineral-rich economy. State mines produce gold, silver, sandstone, limestone, marble, rock phosphate, copper, and lignite. It produces 10% of India’s salt and is the second-most cement.

Wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, and oilseeds are grown extensively. Tobacco and cotton earn money. Rajasthan produces the second-most oilseeds and edible oils in India. Rajasthan produces India’s most wool. Kharif and Rabi are the key crops. Wells and tanks provide most irrigation. The Indira Gandhi Canal irrigates northwestern Rajasthan.

Rajasthan produces rapeseed, bajra, mustard, wool, oilseeds, spices, and milk. Rajasthan produces the third-most soya beans and coarse cereals in India.

Rajasthan leads North India in milk production. Rajasthan Co-operative Milk Producer Union sells Saras milk products in Jodhpur (HQ), Jaipur, and New Delhi.

Rajasthan ranks 12th in India for investment behind Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, West Bengal, and others due to its environment, law & order, infrastructure, investment climate, and population density.

Automobile and manufacturing businesses prefer NCR-facing Bhiwadi. (ref) Due to electricity shortages and infrastructure concerns in Gurgaon, several small suppliers and merchants have moved to Rajasthan. (ref). However, law and order issues in distant industrial belts are developing.

Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation provide development facilities. IT businesses choose Rajasthan, and North India’s largest integrated IT park, Mahindra World City Jaipur, covers approximately 3,000 acres (12 km2). Infosys, Genpact, Wipro, Truworth, Deusche Bank, NEI, MICO, Honda Siel Cars, Coca-Cola, Gillette, etc. operate in Rajasthan.

Rajasthan dominates Indian quarrying and mining. Hindustan Zinc, based in Udaipur, Rajasthan, produces zinc, lead, and silver. The company’s massive smelting and mining operations in Rajasthan’s districts have helped the state’s economy. (ref) Cement comes from the state. Rajasthan is India’s biggest cement producer.

It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar, copper mines at Khetri, and zinc mines at Dariba and Zawar. This chart shows Rajasthan’s major mineral output.

Political Conditions Of Rajasthan

The political conditions of Rajasthan are largely influenced by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The BJP has held power in the state since 2013, winning a majority of seats in the state assembly in the 2013 and 2018 state elections.

The BJP also leads the coalition government in the state. In 2019, the BJP won 25 of the 25 seats in the Lok Sabha elections in Rajasthan. The main opposition party in the state is the Indian National Congress (INC). The INC has been in power in the state from 1998 to 2013. The state also has regional parties such as the Rashtriya Loktantrik Party (RLP) and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). The Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) has also made inroads in the state.

Education and Literacy In Rajasthan

Rajasthan is one of the most populous states in India and has a literacy rate of 67.06%. The state has made significant progress in the field of education, with the establishment of a number of primary, secondary, and higher educational institutions.

The state government has also implemented various initiatives to improve the quality of education, such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and the Right to Education (RTE) Act.

The literacy rate in Rajasthan is 67.06%, which is slightly higher than the national average of 66.9%. The state has made significant progress in the field of literacy in recent years, with the implementation of various initiatives such as the National Literacy Mission, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and the Right to Education (RTE) Act.

The state government has also implemented various schemes to promote literacy among the rural population, such as the Rajasthan Adult Education Programme and the Rajasthan Literacy Mission.

All About The Capital Of Rajasthan

The Pink City, Jaipur, is Rajasthan’s capital. From 1699-1744, Kachwaha Rajput Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II founded it in 1727. Amber, 11 km from Jaipur, was his first capital. Due to population growth and water shortages, he moved to his capital city. Before building Jaipur, the King consulted various architecture and architect books.

Finally, under the architectural leadership of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, first an accounting clerk in Ambar’s treasury and then promoted by the king to chief architect existed on the classical basis of Jaipur Vastu Shastra and related classical treatises.

After fighting the Marathas, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II prioritised city protection. Jai Singh, a devotee of astronomy, mathematics, and astrophysics, consulted Bengali Brahmin Vidyadhar Bhattacharya to design several other buildings, including the Royal Palace in the city centre.

City construction began in 1727. Palaces, roads, and squares took four years to build. Shilpa Shastra—Indian architecture—guided the city’s construction. Two blocks were reserved for the state building and palace, while the other seven were public.

The huge fort walls had seven powerful doors. The town had the best architecture in India at the time. Under Sawai Ram Singh, Jaipur was painted pink to welcome the Prince of Wales in 1853. Today, the city is pink. By 1900, the city had 160,000. Wide boulevards were illuminated and paved.

Sikkim

Sikkim is a northeastern Indian state. It borders Bhutan, Province No. 1 of Nepal, Tibet Autonomous Region of China, and West Bengal. Sikkim is near Bangladesh’s Siliguri Corridor. Sikkim has the second-smallest population in India.

Sikkim is known for its biodiversity, alpine and subtropical temperatures, and Kangchenjunga, India’s highest peak and the third highest in the world. Gangtok is Sikkim’s capital. Khangchendzonga National Park—a UNESCO World Heritage Site—covers 35% of the state.

The 17th-century Namgyal dynasty created Sikkim. Chogyal Buddhist priest-kings ruled. It became a British princely state in 1890. After 1947 and 1950, Sikkim remained a protectorate of India. Himalayan states had the greatest literacy rate and per capita income. The Chogyal’s palace saw anti-royalist rioting in 1973. After the Indian Army occupied Gangtok in 1975, a referendum ended the monarchy and made Sikkim India’s 22nd state.

History Of Sikkim

Sikkim’s first residents were Lepchas. The Limbus and Magars resided in inaccessible West and South territories as early as the Lepchas may have lived in East and North districts. In the 8th century, Padmasambhava, better known as Guru Rinpoche, travelled through the area. The Guru blessed the region, introduced Buddhism, and predicted Sikkim’s monarchy centuries later.

Geographical Aspect Of Sikkim

Mountainous Sikkim is in the Himalayas. The state is mostly hilly, with elevations varying from 280 metres (920 ft) in the south near West Bengal to 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) in northern peaks bordering Nepal and Tibet. Sikkim’s highest point is Kangchenjunga, the world’s third-highest peak, near the Nepal-Sikkim boundary. The steep, rocky hills make the soil unsuitable for farming. Some hilltops have terrace farms.

The state’s west and south have many snow-fed river valleys. The state’s north-south Teesta River and Rangeet are formed from these streams. 30% of the state is densely forested. Sikkim is bordered by the Himalayas. The southern Lower Himalayas have the most people.

The state features 28 mountain peaks, 80 glaciers, 227 high-altitude lakes (including the Tsongmo, Gurudongmar, and Khecheopalri Lakes), five significant hot springs, and over 100 rivers and streams. Tibet, Bhutan, and Nepal are connected by eight mountain passes.

Sikkim’s therapeutic hot springs are famous. Phurchachu, Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu, and Yumey Samdong are the state’s top hot springs. Sulphur-rich springs near rivers emit hydrogen. These hot springs average 50 °C (122 °F).

All About The Economy Of Sikkim

In 2019, Sikkim’s nominal state GDP was US$4.6 billion, with a GDP per capita of $7,530 (INR 5,50,000), making it the third-smallest GDP among India’s 28 states. Rice terraces, maize, millet, wheat, barley, oranges, tea, and cardamom are the state’s main crops. Sikkim has the most cardamom fields in India.

Sikkim’s steep geography and insufficient transport infrastructure prevent large-scale industrialization. Brewing, distilling, tanning, and watchmaking are the main industries in southern Melli and Jorethang. Sikkim’s minor mining industry extracts copper, dolomite, talc, graphite, quartzite, coal, zinc, and lead. Sikkim’s GDP grew 89.93% in 2010 despite its limited industrial infrastructure. Sikkim became India’s first “organic state” in 2015 after committing to organic farming in 2003.

Sikkim’s government has heavily encouraged tourism recently. State revenue has surged 14-fold since the mid-1990s. Sikkim also promoted casinos and online gaming. Casino Sikkim was launched in March 2009. The government granted three casino and online sports betting licences in 2010. Playwin is a state lottery success.

Sikkim’s economy was boosted after the Nathu La pass opened on July 6, 2006, connecting Lhasa, Tibet, to India. Though trade through the past has been rising, Sikkim’s poor infrastructure and India and China’s prohibitions continue to hinder it.

Political Conditions Of Sikkim

Sikkim has 32 assembly seats. The Sangha, the Buddhist representation, has one seat, retaining the longstanding participation of Buddhist theologians in Sikkim politics. Sikkim politics depend on the other 31 assembly constituencies in the four districts.

Sikkim has one representative in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, India’s Lower and Upper Houses. The chief minister oversees a council of ministers and the executive. Sikkim’s politics have always been shaped by the charisma of its leaders. Sikkim politics often hinges on a party’s leader’s popularity. Sikkim politics depend on ethnic and religious factors.

Recently, things have changed. Political parties are organising. State and regional parties dominate Sikkim politics. In the early days of democracy in Sikkim, national political parties began to assert themselves in this scenic Himalayan state.

As it does now, the Indian National Congress dominated Sikkim politics. INC was more popular than other national parties. However, many have become proactive to grow their influence in this region.

Education and Literacy In Sikkim

Sikkim is an amalgamation of two Limbu terms that together signify “new castle.” North of West Bengal, in the Himalayas, is this landlocked state. Sikkim is a region with striking topography. Wild rivers, lakes, and waterfalls combine with rugged mountains, deep valleys, and dense forests to produce a stunning landscape.

This tiny, once-Himalayan kingdom is a sanctuary for travellers and widely considered one of the most beautiful places in all of India. Sikkimese are tri-ethnic, made up of Lepcha, Bhutia, and Nepali peoples. Religions like Buddhism and Hinduism predominate. The 2011 census put Sikkim’s total population at 0.61 million, with men making up 0.32 million of that total and women accounting for 0.29 million.

There were 81.42% literate residents in Sikkim, with males making up 86.55% of the number and females making up 66.39%. Sikkim’s sex ratio of 890 females to 1000 males is much lower than the national average of 940 females to 1000 males.

All About The Capital Of Sikkim

Sikkim’s capital, Gangtok. At 5,600 feet, it sits on a Tista River tributary in the southeast-central portion of the state (1,700 metres).

“Top of the Hill” describes the city. Gangtok rises on terraced cornfields (maize). It was the capital of Sikkim until 1975, when the monarchy was abolished and India conquered it (1976). Nepalese, Tibetans, Lepchas, and Indians live there. The Gangtok Municipal Corporation merged several adjacent villages in the early 21st century, expanding the city’s land and population.

Gangtok markets corn, rice, lentils, and oranges. Until 1962, the India-Tibet trade route passed over Nathu Pass (Nathu-la) 13 miles (21 km) northeast. In 2006, trade resumed at the pass. The North Sikkim Highway (1962) connects Gangtok to Lachung and Lachen on the Tibetan border, while the National Highway goes southwest to India.

The former royal palace and chapel, two monasteries, the Lall Market, the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology (1958; a Mahayana Buddhist research centre with a library and museum), and the Cottage Industries Institute are landmarks in Gangtok (1957).

The royal cremation place is in Lukshiyama, while Rumtek, a Buddhist monastery, lies 5 kilometres southwest. The 1940s Tibetan Buddhist Do-drul Chorten (Do-drul Stupa) has 108 prayer wheels around its gold-topped stupa. 2007 brought Sikkim University to the city.

Tamil Nadu

Southern India is home to the state of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is the home of the Tamil people, whose language, Tamil, is widely spoken in the state and serves as the official language. Tamil is one of the world’s longest-surviving classical languages. Chennai is the largest city and the capital.

History Of Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu, located in present-day southeastern India, displays signs of continuous human occupancy between the years 15,000 and 10,000 BCE. From the early Upper Paleolithic period all the way up to the present day, this area has shared its home with many different cultures.

History reveals that the Chera, Chola, and Pandya empires of Tamil Nadu all had deep roots in the past. They unified to control this land with their own distinct language and culture, which fostered the development of some of the world’s earliest literature.

As each of these three dynasties vied for control of the country, they engaged in a never-ending war with one another. Kalabhra invasions in the third century AD uprooted the three dominant kingdoms and disrupted the established order of the region. As the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to power again, they drove out the invaders and established the old kingdoms in their place.

Following their resurgence in the 9th century, the Cholas defeated the Pallavas and the Pandyas, expanding their dominion across the entire southern peninsula.

Geographical Aspect Of Tamil Nadu

The size of Tamil Nadu, India, is 130,058 square kilometres, making it the tenth largest state in India (50,216 sq mi). In the north is Andhra Pradesh, in the east is the Bay of Bengal, and to the south is the Indian Ocean.

To the west is Kerala, to the northwest is Karnataka, and to the south is Kerala. Tamil Nadu is home to Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari), the southernmost extremity of the Indian Peninsula and the point where the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean all converge.

All About The Economy Of Tamil Nadu

When it comes to India’s economy, Tamil Nadu comes in at number two, right after Maharashtra. The state also has the highest level of industrialization in the country. An astounding sixty per cent of its population now resides in urban areas, making it home to more than ten per cent of India’s urban populace.

55% of the state’s economy comes from the service sector, 34% from manufacturing, and 11% from agriculture. In terms of total investments, the government accounts for 52%, private Indian investors for 29.9%, and international private investors for 14.9%. According to the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States in India, this is the most economically liberated Indian state.

Political Conditions Of Tamil Nadu

Since Dravidian politics emerged in the 1960s, Tamil Nadu politics has been socialist. Tamil Nadu elects AIADMK and DMK alternately, with no major third party. According to their political and economic policies, Tamil Nadu’s two political parties, AIADMK and DMK, ensured that the state’s residents benefit from contemporary technologies.

Whichever party was in power ensured that all homes had a television, women had household appliances to work on the family economy, and students had bicycles, textbooks, stationery, and laptops to attain and complete their education.

Freebies are also denounced as bribery disguised as welfare. Right-wing politicians and economists believe budgetary profligacy and subsidies are wasteful and lazy. Leftists and left-leaning parties are concerned about the freebie programme business model.

They say the two parties depoliticize voters and bribe them to ignore regime corruption. These social welfare programmes give the Dravidian faction of Tamil Nadu politics an edge over regional and national parties.

Education and Literacy In Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu ranks high in literacy. 2011’s state literacy rate was 80.33%, above the national average. Tamil Nadu has the highest Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in elementary and upper primary education, according to Assocham.

The state’s education system follows the national model with 12 years of schooling (10+2+3): eight years of elementary education (five years of primary and three years of middle school for ages 6-11 and 11–14, respectively), two years of secondary and higher secondary education, and two years of pre-primary education.

Class 1 is 5+. 3–4-year-olds attend pre-primary. Higher secondary school graduates can study in universities or colleges for general academic and technical and professional degrees.

All About The Capital Of Tamil Nadu

Chennai, originally Madras, is the capital of Tamil Nadu, the southernmost Indian state. The state’s largest city is on the Bay of Bengal’s Coromandel Coast. Chennai was India’s sixth-most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in 2011.

The Greater Chennai Corporation, India’s oldest city corporation, was founded in 1688.

The Chola, Pandya, Pallava, and Vijayanagara dynasties ruled Chennai and its surroundings for centuries. In the 17th century, the British East India Company bought the fishing village Madrasapattinam from the Nayak king Damarla Chennapa Nayaka.

The British garrison erected Fort St. George, the first British bastion in India, which the French briefly took over in 1746 before becoming the winter capital of the Madras Presidency, a colonial province of the British Raj in India. Madras remained Tamil Nadu’s capital after India’s 1947 independence. Chennai was renamed in 1996.

Telangana

Telangana is an Indian state in the high Deccan Plateau in the south-central Indian peninsula. The 2011 census reported 35,193,978 persons in the eleventh-largest and twelfth-most populous state in India, 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi). Telangana, with Hyderabad as its capital, was created on June 2, 2014, from the northern section of Andhra Pradesh. Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, and Ramagundam are all prominent cities. Telangana borders Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Telangana is largely Deccan Plateau with lush forests totalling 27,292 km2 (10,538 sq mi). 2019 Telangana has 33 districts.

History Of Telangana

The Mauryans, Satavahanas, Vishnukundinas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, and Golconda Sultanate governed Telangana in antiquity and the Middle Ages. Indian Mughals governed the region in the 16th and 17th centuries. Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb is famous here. The Nizam of Hyderabad controlled Telangana in the 18th century and British Raj. The Nizams surrendered Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema) to the East India Company in 1823. Hyderabad State, Nizam’s dominion, was reduced to a landlocked princely state in the central Deccan, surrounded by British India, after the British acquisition of the Northern Circars. Madras Presidency ruled the Northern Circars until 1947 when it became India’s Madras state.

Geographical Aspect Of Telangana

Telangana sits in the Deccan Plateau in the centre of the eastern Indian Peninsula. 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi). The Godavari and Krishna rivers drain the region, but much of it is desert. Minor rivers like the Bhima, Maner, Manjira, Musi, and Tungabhadra drain Telangana.

Southwest monsoons bring 900–1500 mm of rainfall to northern Telangana and 700–900 to southern Telangana. Telangana has red sandy loams (Chalaka), red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt-affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils, and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types support mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana, and flower crops.

All About The Economy Of Telangana

With a compound annual growth rate of 13.90% during the past five years, Telangana has been one of India’s fastest-growing states. In 2020-21, Telangana is projected to have a nominal GDP of 12.05 lakh crore, or about $170 billion. In 2018-2019, the service sector accounted for over 65% of Telangana’s economy. The State’s dominant position in domestic production and exports of information technology and information technology-enabled services (IT & ITeS) has been a major contributor to the sector’s overall growth.

Political Conditions Of Telangana

In 2014, Telangana became an independent state in India. Its current landmass was once a part of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Telangana Rashtra Samithi, the party at the forefront of the Telangana movement after 2001, is currently governing as the majority party in the Telangana Legislative Assembly with the support of Chief Minister K. Chandrashekar Rao.

Education and Literacy In Telangana

Among the country’s most populous states, Telangana has the fourth-lowest literacy rate (72.8%), and the second-lowest literacy rate (53.7% among rural women). The report “Household Social Consumption on Education in India” from the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation provides this information. The paper uses numbers to illustrate a range of difficulties associated with language acquisition and schooling.

One problem is that too many people give up on their schooling before turning twenty. While over 94% of people in Telangana between the ages of 6 and 17 are enrolled in some form of formal education, that figure plummets to just 30.9% among those aged 18 to 23 and an even more dismal 1.5% among those aged 24 to 29. The report found that only 5.3% of students in Telangana were enrolled in any sort of technical or professional programme, placing it ninth out of 22 states. When compared to other states in southern India, this is the lowest.

All About The Capital Of Telangana

According to the 2011 Indian census, Hyderabad ranks as the country’s fourth-most populous metro area. Hyderabad is the sixth-largest urban economy in India. Because of the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, Hyderabad is now the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Hyderabad’s Charminar has become an internationally recognised landmark. Due to its well-known culinary scene, UNESCO has designated Hyderabad a “creative city of gastronomy.”

The pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and IT industries all have significant presence in Hyderabad.
There are several banks, universities, factories, and research facilities in Hyderabad. The defence sector also has a significant presence in Hyderabad. Hyderabad is home to a number of DRDO facilities, including the Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Bharat Dynamics Limited, and others (BDL).

Tripura

Tripura, a state in northeast India, is hilly and shares three borders with Bangladesh. It is also home to a wide variety of tribal peoples and religious communities. The majestic Ujjayanta Palace in Agartala’s Mughal gardens is complemented by the white marble domes and towers of the Gedu Mia’s Mosque. Neermahal, a summer palace located to the south of the city on an island in Lake Rudrasagar, combines Hindu and Islamic design elements.

History Of Tripura

Manikya Maharajas governed Tripura. Even during the British administration in India, it was an independent administrative unit under the Maharaja, but each king had to recognise the British as the supreme power.


Before Tripura joined the Indian Union on October 15, 1949, Rajmala, the regal chronology, lists 184 kings. Since then, Tripura has seen political, economic, and social changes. Tripura became a Union Territory on November 1, 1956, and a “C” state on January 26, 1950. As per the North-East Reorganisation Act, 1971, Tripura became a state on January 21, 1972, after its people persevered. In 1978, municipal elections led to the three-tier Panchayati Raj System.


In 1982, the Autonomous District Council (ADC) was established under the 7th Schedule of the Constitution to promote socio-economic development, language, and culture in Tripura Tribal Areas. In 1985, it was moved to the 6th Schedule. Tripura’s ADC covers 68.10% of the state’s area and is home to 33% of its inhabitants. Tripura had one district. Decentralization has been furthered by forming eight districts, 23 subdivisions, 58 rural development blocks, 591 Gram Panchayats, eight Zilla Parishads, nine Nagar Panchayats, 10 Municipal Councils, and 1 Municipal Corporation for administrative convenience. 587 6th Schedule village committees are Gram Panchayats.

Geographical Aspect Of Tripura

The Tropic of Cancer runs through the state’s 22o7′ to 24o2′ North latitudes and 91o0′ to 92o0′ East longitudes. State’s three physiographic zones are hill ranges, undulating plateaus, and low-lying alluvial plains. Five major hill ranges cross the state north-south and enter Chittagong Hill Tract. These ranges are separated by narrow valleys 20 km wide. Unokoti-Sakhantlang, Longthorai, Atharamura-Kalajhari, and Baramura-Deotamura follow Jampui to the west. Bethliangchhip (Thaidawar, Shib-rangkhung) is the highest peak at 975.36 m.

Tripura has distinct seasons. The state has five seasons—spring, summer, monsoon, autumn, and winter—with a tropical environment. Mid-February until mid-March is spring. Mid-February rain brings winter. Summer begins in mid-March and peaks in April-May. Jhum harvesting in the highlands in March-April always brings pre-monsoon rain. Pre-monsoon and monsoon rain might overlap. 35.60°c is high. Monsoons start in late May or early June and persist until September. From November to January, winter is severe, with a minimum temperature of 4oc in 1995.

Humidity is high year-round. Summer relative humidity is from 50 to 74 per cent, while rainy season humidity is around 85 per cent.

All About The Economy Of Tripura

Tripura’s GDP grew 10.38% to 640 billion rupees (US$8.0 billion) at a constant price in 2022-23. India’s GDP was 277,520 billion rupees (US$3.5 trillion) with an 8.55% growth rate. At current prices, the state’s per capita income was 157,752 (US$2,000), compared to 197,280 (US$2,500) nationally. In 2009, 53.98 per cent of the state’s GDP came from the tertiary sector (service industries), followed by 23.07 per cent from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining) and 22.95 per cent from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing). According to the 2005 Economic Census, retail trade had the most non-agricultural workers (28.21%), followed by manufacturing (18.60%), public administration (14.54%), and education (14.40%).

The majority of Tripura’s population works in agriculture. However, rough terrain and forest cover limit farming to 27%. 91% of the state’s crops are rice. In 2009–10, Tripura’s main crops were potato, sugarcane, mesta, pulses, and jute, according to the Directorate of Economics & Statistics. Jackfruit and pineapple lead horticultural products. Most indigenous people used jhum (slash-and-burn) farming. Jhum dependence has decreased over time.

Political Conditions Of Tripura

The Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress, and Bharatiya Janata Party have dominated Tripura’s politics. In the 2019 Indian general election, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won two parliamentary constituencies and the state legislative assembly as of 2020. AITC entered Tripura politics in 2021. It finished second in the 2021 Agartala Municipal Elections, ahead of the CPI-M, with almost 20% of the vote. It finished second in several other wards across the state with approximately 17% of votes. BJP MLA Ashish Das joined AITC.

Direct elections to the Tripura Territorial Council were allowed by the 1956 Act (TTC). 30 directly elected and two governor-nominated TTC members. TTC elections began in 1957 and continued in 1959. Twenty-member February 1962 council.

Tripura has two Lok Sabha and one Rajya Sabha MPs. Many communities have self-governing panchayats elected via local body elections. The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council governs tribal areas in Tripura. This council governs 527 communities with substantial scheduled tribal populations. In 2018, the state has 60 assembly constituencies.

Education and Literacy In Tripura

Tripura, in Northeast India, has public and private education. Tripura had the highest literacy rate in India at 94.65% on September 8, 2013.

According to the 2011 Indian census, the state had an 87.75 per cent literacy rate, with male literacy at 92.18 per cent and female literacy at 83.14 per cent.

Private or state-run Tripura schools include religious institutes. Kokborok, English, and Bengali are used for instruction. The schools are affiliated with CISCE, CBSE, NIOS, or Tripura Board of Secondary Education. 

After secondary school, students enrol for two years at a junior college, often known as pre-university, or a higher secondary school affiliated with the Tripura Board of Secondary Education or any central board under the 10+2+3 plan. Students pick liberal arts, commerce, or science. Students can enrol in general or professional degree programmes after finishing coursework.

All About The Capital Of Tripura

Tripura’s capital, Agartala. Northeast India’s a small but lovely state. Agartala’s name comes from the region’s abundance of agarwood trees, according to numerous sources. Agartala lies within a few kilometres from Bangladesh’s border on the Howrah River. Agartala’s history attracts tourists. Great king Raghu chained his elephant’s feet to an Agar tree on Lauhitya’s banks. Patardan ruled Agartala in B.C. 1900. Pre-Manikya Dynasties.

Agartala’s famous kings are Chitrarath, Drikpati, Dharmapha, and LoknathJivandharan. Maharaja Krishna Manikya (1748-1783) moved the Tripura capital from Udaipur to Old Agartala in 1660. King Krishna Kishore Manikya (1830-1849) moved his capital from Old Agartala to present-day Agartala. Birchandra Manikya founded Agartala Municipality in 1871. Agartala’s first modern urban plan was created by the state’s ruler in 1936–37.

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh, in the centre of India, is a place of epics, sacred rivers, historical cities, and pilgrimage.

With its growing system of motorways, industrial corridors, international airports, centres of educational and medical excellence, and exporter of indigenous products, it is becoming an important economic engine for the country.

The state has been the epicentre of cultural and intellectual excellence ever since the era of Lord Rama, Lord Krishna, Gautam Buddha, and Lord Mahavira.

Today, the state offers the most investor-friendly climate for a better future for its people and the entire country, thanks to its advanced infrastructure and aggressive leadership.

History Of Uttar Pradesh

Technically, the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh dates back to 1 April 1937, when it was formed from the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, however, there is evidence of human settlement in the area reaching back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago. Evidence suggests that the area was settled and domesticated as early as 6,000 B.C.

In 1526, following Babur’s invasion of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire was founded throughout a considerable portion of present-day Uttar Pradesh, ushering in the modern era for the region. Fatehpur Sikri, Allahabad Fort, Agra Fort, and the Taj Mahal are just a few of the Mughal monuments that have survived the ruins of the empire.

Uprisings occurred in the cities of Meerut, Kanpur, and Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The Indian National Congress held its independence movement here as well.

A new name, Uttar Pradesh, was given to the United Provinces in 1950, following India’s declaration of independence in 1947.

Uttarakhand was separated from Uttar Pradesh in 2000.

Geographical Aspect Of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh has harsh terrain and elevations from 300 to 5000 metres. The Bhabhar region in Uttar Pradesh is a porous bed of coarse pebbles and stones brought down by rivers from the Siwalik range.

These permeable sedimentary strata submerge river streams. Along the Siwalik foothills, the Bhabhar tract becomes the Terai. Rich forests and several rivers characterise the “Terai and Bhabhar area” transitional zone.

The Ganges—Ganga, Yamuna, and their tributaries—flows down the Himalayas. Ganga Yamuna’s elevation is 300 m.
The Gangetic plains’ alluvial deposits from this two-river system are good for growing rice, wheat, barley, and gramme.


From east to west, these plains make up roughly three-fourths of the state. Its flat environment contains rivers, lakes, and ponds, with elevations varying from 60 metres in the east to 300 metres in the northwest with a gradient of 2 metres per square kilometre. Gangetic plains include the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Ganges plains, Terai, and Ghaghra. Three sub-regions comprise this enormous alluvial topography.


Western tract: This region has a strong agriculture sector due to its water and irrigation facilities.
Central tract: Despite substantial irrigation, the central tract floods.
Eastern tract: Famines, floods, and poor irrigation make the eastern Gangetic plains a shortage region. It contains 14 districts.

All About The Economy Of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh has the third-largest Indian economy. 2022-23 state nominal GDP is Rs. 21.74 trillion. 2021-22 (US$294.90 billion).

Urban Uttar Pradesh has 44,495,063. 22.76% of Uttar Pradesh’s population lives in cities, per the 2011 census. The state has 7 cities over 10 lahks (1 million). After the division in 2000 (Uttarakhand state was formed out of it), the new Uttar Pradesh state produces 92% of the former state’s economic output. The 2011–12 Planning Commission estimated 29.4% of the state’s population was impoverished. NITI Aayog’s latest NFHS-4 (2015–16) statistics showed 37.79% of the population was poor.

Uttar Pradesh had 5.2% economic growth in the eleventh five-year planning period of 2002–2007. Uttar Pradesh had 7% economic growth in the tenth period, 2007–2012. However, the growth rate dropped to 5.9% and 5.1% in 2012–13 and 2013–14, one of the lowest in India. 2005’s state debt was 67% of GDP. Along with Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Punjab, the state received $46.75 billion (Rs3,42,884.05 crore) in remittances in 2012. The state government chose Meerut, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Varanasi for Metro train projects. Lucknow Metro opened in September 2017 and Kanpur Metro in December 2021. Uttar Pradesh is the country’s top wheat producer (30%).

Political Conditions Of Uttar Pradesh

Parliamentary democracy rules the nation. Uttar Pradesh is one of seven Indian states with a bicameral legislature with two houses, the Vidhan Sabha and the Vidhan Parishad (legislative council). The Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly has 404 five-year-term members. 33 members of the 100-member Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council retire every two years. Uttar Pradesh is one of the most important states in Indian politics because it sends the most lawmakers to Parliament. The state has 80 Lok Sabha seats and 31 Rajya Sabha seats.

Governors appoint the chief minister and cabinet. The five-year governor is the state’s constitutional leader. The chief minister and their council of ministers, who have a lot of legislative power, administer the government while the governor remains the ceremonial leader.

Cabinet and state ministers make up the council. The chief secretary’s Secretariat assists the council of ministers. The chief secretary runs the government.

Each government department is led by a minister and an additional chief secretary or senior secretary, usually an officer of the Indian Administrative Service. Each department has secretaries, special secretaries, joint secretaries, and supplementary chief secretaries or senior secretaries to assist the minister.

Education and Literacy In Uttar Pradesh

The latest population census shows 67.68 percent literacy in Uttar Pradesh. Male literacy is 77.28% and female literacy is 57.18%. Uttar Pradesh has 56.27 percent literacy in 2001, with males at 68.82 percent and females at 42.22 percent.

Uttar Pradesh has 114,397,555 literates, with 68,234,964 men and 46,162,591 females.

All About The Capital Of Uttar Pradesh

Modern human hunter-gatherers have lived in Uttar Pradesh for 85,000–72,000 years. The Middle and Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement at Pratapgarh, dated to 10550–9550 BCE, have also been found in Uttar Pradesh. Villages with tamed cattle, sheep, and goats and traces of agriculture began as early as 6000 BCE and developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BCE, starting with the Indus Valley civilisation and Harappa culture and continuing through the Vedic period and Iron Age.

Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, formerly Uttaranchal, is a northern Indian state. Due to its religious significance and many Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres, the state is called “Devbhumi” (meaning “Land of the Gods”). Uttarakhand is recognised for its Himalayan, Bhabar, and Terai landscapes. The Tibet Autonomous Region of China, Nepal’s Sudurpashchim Province, Uttar Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh border it. 13 districts are split between Garhwal and Kumaon divisions. Dehradun, Uttarakhand’s largest city and railhead, is its winter capital. Uttarakhand’s summer capital is Chamoli’s Bhararisain.

History Of Uttarakhand

Prehistoric humans lived in the area, according to archaeology. The Vedic period’s Uttarakuru Kingdom included the area. The Kunindas, an early Shaivist dynasty of Kumaon, ruled in the second century BCE. Ashokan edicts at Kalsi indicate early Buddhism in this region.

The Katyuri monarchs of Kumaon (Kurmanchal Kingdom) consolidated the region in the mediaeval period. After Katyuris’ fall, the region became the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms. The Treaty of Sugauli gave the British most of Uttarakhand in 1816.

Although Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighbouring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, economy, culture, language, and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions, which strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s.

Rock art, rock shelters, palaeolithic stone tools (hundreds of thousands of years old), and megaliths show that the mountains were inhabited prehistorically. Archaeological evidence shows early Vedic (c. 1500 BCE) customs in the area. The Pauravas, Khasas, Kiratas, Nandas, Mauryas, Kushanas, Kunindas, Guptas, Karkotas, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, Katyuris, Raikas, Chands, Parmars or Panwars, Mallas, Shahs, and British controlled Uttarakhand in turns.

Geographical Aspect Of Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand is 53,566 km2 (20,682 sq mi) and 86% mountainous and 65% forested. High Himalayan peaks and glaciers cover most of the north. The growth of Indian roads, trains, and other infrastructure in the first half of the 19th century raised concerns about uncontrolled logging, particularly in the Himalayas. Hinduism’s Ganges and Yamuna originate in Uttarakhand’s glaciers. Lakes, glacier melts, and streams supply them. The Chota Char Dham—these two, Badrinath, and Kedarnath—is a Hindu pilgrimage.

Jim Corbett National Park, India’s oldest, houses the Bengal tiger. The Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the upper Bhyundar Ganga near Joshimath in Gharwal, are recognised for their rare and varied flowers and vegetation. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, raised this on his visit. In 1855, Lord Dalhousie enacted the Indian Forest Charter, ending laissez-faire. The 1878 Indian Forest Act scientifically grounded Indian forestry.

Dietrich Brandis founded the Imperial Forest School at Dehradun in 1878 as a result. The Imperial Forest Research Institute became the Forest Research Institute in 1906.

All About The Economy Of Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand’s 2004 GDP was $6 billion at current rates. Uttarakhand, a partitioned state, contributes 8% of Uttar Pradesh’s output.

Uttarakhand has India’s second-fastest growth. Its GSDP (at constant prices) increased from 24,786 crore in FY 2005 to 60,898 crore in FY2012. The FY 2005–FY2012 real GSDP rose 13.7% (CAGR). The service sector contributed 50% of Uttarakhand’s GSDP in FY 2012. Uttarakhand’s FY 2013 per capita income was 1,03,000. (FY2013). The Reserve Bank of India reported US$46.7 million in foreign direct investment in the state from April 2000 to October 2009.

Uttarakhand, like most of India, relies on agriculture. Most crops include basmati rice, wheat, soybeans, groundnuts, coarse cereals, pulses, and oil seeds. The big food processing business grows apples, oranges, pears, peaches, litchis, and plums. The state has leechi, horticulture, herbs, medicinal plants, and basmati rice export zones. Wheat, rice, and sugarcane were the state’s principal cash crops in 2010. Hilly 86% of the state reduces yield per hectare. Plains make up 86% of croplands and hills the rest.

Political Conditions Of Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, like all Indian states, has a parliamentary representative democratic government.

The Union government advises the President of India to appoint the Governor for a five-year tenure. Uttarakhand Governor Gurmit Singh. The state election winner’s party or coalition Chief Minister has genuine executive power. Pushkar Singh Dhami leads Uttarakhand. 

The unicameral Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly has 70 MLAs and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, elected by the members. In the Speaker’s absence, the Deputy Speaker leads Assembly meetings. The Governor of Uttarakhand appoints the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister and reports to the Legislative Assembly. Legislative Assembly Official Opposition Leader. Gram panchayats, municipalities, and municipal corporations are local auxiliary administrations.

All state and local offices are five years. The state elects 5 Lok Sabha and 3 Rajya Sabha members of the Indian Parliament. The judiciary includes the Nainital-based Uttarakhand High Court and lower courts. Acting Chief Justice of Uttarakhand Sanjaya Kumar Mishra.

Education and Literacy In Uttarakhand

There were 1,040,139 kids enrolled in Uttarakhand’s 15,331 elementary schools as of the 30th of September 2010, and 22,118 instructors actively employed. The literacy percentage of the state was 78.82% according to the 2011 census; males had a literacy rate of 87.4% and females of 70%. English and Hindi are both used as mediums of instruction in schools.

The majority of schools in the state are either publicly funded, or privately owned and operated with or without public funding and support. The Department of Education of the Government of Uttarakhand has determined the state curriculum, and most schools in the state are affiliated with either the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Council for the Indian Schooling Environment (CISCE). (Citation required) In addition, Roorkee is home to an IIT, Rishikesh to an AIIMS, and Kashipur to an IIM.

All About The Capital Of Uttarakhand

  1. The capital and largest city of Uttarakhand is Dehradun.
  2. It is the city with the most people in all of Uttarakhand.
  3. Doon valley, amid the foothills of the Himalayas, is where you’ll find the city of Dehradun.
  4. The city is well-known for the numerous educational and scientific institutes it contains.
  5. In common parlance, people refer to it as the “Abode of Drona.”

West Bengal

Located in eastern India, the state of West Bengal is a major economic and cultural hub. Located on the eastern coast of the Indian subcontinent, it has a total size of 88,752 km2 and a population of about 91 million people (34,267 sq mi). West Bengal is the eighth most populated country subdivision in the world and the fourth most populous state in India by population and the thirteenth biggest by area. Located in eastern India, it shares borders with Bangladesh to the east and Nepal and Bhutan to the north.

Additionally, the Indian states of Sikkim, Assam, and Assam share a border with it. Kolkata, India’s third-largest metropolitan and seventh-largest city overall, is the state capital. Darjeeling in the Himalayan foothills, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans, and the Bay of Bengal are all part of West Bengal. The Bengalis are the most numerous ethnic group in the state, with the Bengali Hindus making up the majority of the population.

History Of West Bengal

Bengal (Bangla) gets its name from the ancient Vanga (Banga) empire. Although it is mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts, little is known about its history before the 3rd century BCE, when it became a part of the vast Mauryan empire inherited by Emperor Ashoka. As the Mauryan Empire crumbled, disorder once again reigned supreme. Samudra Gupta’s Gupta empire annexed the territory in the fourth century CE.

The later Pala dynasty eventually took control of the area. Bengal was ruled by Muslims from the early 13th century to the mid-18th century when the British rose to power. During this time, the region was occasionally governed by governors who recognised the suzerainty of the Delhi sultanate, but generally, it was ruled by independent monarchs.

At the Battle of Plassey, which took place not far from modern-day Palashi in 1757, British forces commanded by Robert Clive beat those of the nawab (ruler) of Bengal, Sirj al-Dawlah. The dwaja of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa (now Odisha) was awarded to the British East India Company in 1765 by Shah lam II, the nominal Mughal ruler of northern India. Following the passage of the Regulating Act in 1773, Warren Hastings was appointed the first British governor-general of Bengal.

Calcutta (now Kolkata) and the administration it housed were recognised as the undisputed capital of British India, and the governor-general of Bengal was recognised as the head of state. Therefore, the Bengal Presidency (the name given to the province) had supervisory authority over the two British presidencies (today known as Madras (now Chennai) and Bombay) (now Mumbai).

Geographical Aspect Of West Bengal

The southern Gangetic Plain and the northern sub-Himalayan and Himalayan regions form the two main natural geographic divisions of West Bengal. The Gangetic Plain is home to rich agricultural land because of the alluvial deposits made by the Ganges River and its branches. Dead river systems have given rise to countless marshes and small lakes.

In fact, the Ganges has been steadily shifting eastward over the course of centuries, and it is now flowing through the narrow middle section of the state before entering Bangladesh; only a fraction of its water now makes its way to the sea via the western distributaries, the principal one of which is the Hugli (Hooghly).

Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, may be found on the Hugli in the state’s southernmost region. West of Kolkata, the Hugli meets the Damodar, another major river. The plain rises gradually in elevation toward the west, most noticeably towards the Chota Nagpur plateau in neighbouring Jharkhand.

All About The Economy Of West Bengal

West Bengal, India’s sixth largest economy, is expected to have a GSDP of Rs. 17.13 trillion (US$ 221.37 billion) in 2022-23. GSDP rose 11.54% from 2015-16 to 2022-23BE in the state.

West Bengal produces India’s most rice. 2017-18 state rice production was 14.99 million tonnes. West Bengal produces lots of fish. Fish production was 1.85 million tonnes in 2018-19.

West Bengal has 10,656.38 MW of installed electricity generation capacity in August 2022, with 5,997.95 MW under state utilities, 2,912.02 under the private sector, and 1,746.41 under central utilities.

The West Bengal State Budget 2020-21 allotted Rs. 4,400 crores (US$ 624.20 million) to Public Works (Roads) Department. This budget includes Rs. 2,092 crores for state highway development and Rs. 1,820 crores for district and other roads.

India’s second-largest tea-growing state. August 2022 West Bengal tea production was 52.1 million kg.

West Bengal received US$1,048.25 million in FDI from October 2019 to June 2022.

Political Conditions Of West Bengal

The All India Trinamool Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), and Indian National Congress dominate West Bengal politics. The state suffered horrific political violence for decades.

West Bengal, like other Indian states, has a parliamentary representative democracy. Residents vote universally. Two branches govern. Members elect the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

In the Speaker’s absence, the Deputy Speaker leads Assembly meetings. The judiciary includes the Calcutta High Court and lower courts. The Governor is the titular head of government, however, the Chief Minister leads the Council of Ministers. The Indian President appoints the Governor. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and Council of Ministers at the suggestion of the Legislative Assembly majority party or coalition leader. Legislative Assembly oversees the Council of Ministers.

The unicameral Assembly has 295 MLAs, including one Anglo-Indian nominee. Unless the Assembly dissolves, terms are five years. Local matters are governed by panchayats, which are routinely elected. The state has 16 Rajya Sabha seats and 42 Lok Sabha seats.

Education and Literacy In West Bengal

When compared to the other Indian states, West Bengal ranks highly in terms of educational attainment and literacy rates. While primary school enrollment was as high as 94% in 1998-99, data for middle school enrollment suggest a far steeper drop to 51%. The similar fall in a high-performing state like Himachal Pradesh, from 92% to 84%, is far smaller. The enrollment rates of SCs and STs were lower than those of the general population in both West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh.

The SCs and STs of both States showed the typical drop in enrollment between the primary and middle stages, similar to the overall population. An external data set for West Bengal’s socially and economically disadvantaged groups, compiled by the Council for Social Development as part of a Planning Commission-funded initiative, confirms this trend. West Bengal as a whole has a sizable population that is literate yet poorly educated.

All About The Capital Of West Bengal

The capital of the Indian state of West Bengal, Kolkata, also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001, is located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, some 80 kilometres (50 miles) west of the Bangladeshi border.

It serves as the key port of communication for North-East India and the principal business, commercial, and financial hub of Eastern India. A total of 45 lahks (4.5 million) people call Kolkata home, making it the seventh-most populated metropolis in India as of the 2011 census. It is a part of the Kolkata Metropolitan Area, often known as Greater Kolkata, which is the third-most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of about 1.41 crore (14.1 million).

The number of registered voters in the greater Kolkata area surpassed 1.5 crores (15 million) in 2021. India’s only significant riverine port and its oldest functioning port are both located in Kolkata. Kolkata is recognised as India’s cultural epicentre. After Dhaka, Kolkata is the city with the greatest Bengali-speaking population. Of all the Indian cities, it boasts the most Nobel laureates.

What is union territory?

A Union Territory in India is a region ruled directly by the federal government, rather than by a state government. These territories are similar to states in terms of administration, but they do not have the same level of autonomy. There are currently eight Union Territories in India, including Puducherry, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

These territories are governed by a Lieutenant Governor, appointed by the President of India. The Parliament of India has the power to make laws for Union Territories in certain matters, such as public order, police, and land. Union Territories are also represented in the Indian Parliament by Members of Parliament and Members of the Legislative Assembly.

History of Union Territories

The Indian federal system contained the following when the Constitution of India was ratified in 1949. The President of India appoints a chief commissioner to oversee each of the states in Part C, which includes the former chief commissioners’ provinces and certain princely states. The 10 states that made up Part C were: Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.


The federal government appoints a lieutenant governor to oversee the affairs of India’s sole Part D state, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


States in Part C and Part D were merged into a single “Union territory” after the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. Other changes resulted in the union territories being reduced to only six:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands (later renamed Lakshadweep)
  3. Delhi
  4. Manipur
  5. Tripura
  6. Himachal Pradesh

In the early 1970s, Chandigarh was elevated from “union territory” status to that of a full state, joining Manipur, Tripura, and Himachal Pradesh. Three more, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry, were created out of areas conquered from non-British colonial powers (Portuguese India and French India, respectively).

The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 was passed by the Indian Parliament in August of this year. The Act provides for the reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir on October 31, 2019, into two union territories, one to be named Jammu and Kashmir, and the other to be named Ladakh.

India’s central government proposed a bill in November 2019 that would combine the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu into a single union territory with the same name.

Constitutional Provisions related to UTs

Including Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, Pondicherry, Delhi, Ladakh, and Jammu and Kashmir on January 26, 2020, there are be eight union territories in India. 

UTs with legislatures, like Delhi, have their own assembly and elect MLAs, giving them some of the powers of a state, whereas UTs without legislatures, like Chandigarh, do not. Let’s break through the provisions that pertain to it.

  1. Parliament has legislated (Article 239(1)) that the President can appoint an administrator whenever he sees fit, and that the President can designate the Governor of a State to serve as the administrator of adjacent territory, with the authority to carry out the Governor’s duties.
  2. Constitutional machinery breakdown is discussed in Article 239 (AB). But before we get into it, let’s define constitutional machinery so we know what we’re talking about. It’s a group of locally elected officials and government officials with the authority to run a certain area, the failure of which necessitated presidential intervention. An administrator can enforce a rule or order that is not specifically listed in state legislation thanks to the administrator’s authority to promulgate ordinances during the recess of the Legislature, as stated in Article 239B. For instance, building codes and safety standards.
  3. The authority of the President to make laws for the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry is discussed in Article 240. We know now that Parliament can form legislatures thanks to the law, but that the President can only use his authority once the legislative in question has been suspended. From the date set for the first sitting of the Legislature, the President will have no authority to impose regulations for peace, progress, or good government.
  4. Union territory high courts are governed by Article 241. Parliament can make a territory court the High Court for Constitutional reasons. It further specifies that any High Court that had jurisdiction over any Union Territory before the Constitution will continue to do so, subject to Constitutional or legislative restrictions. Thus, the Punjab and Haryana High Court functions as the Chandigarh High Court, the Kerala High Court has jurisdiction over Lakshadweep, the Calcutta High Court over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Madras High Court over Pondicherry, and the Bombay High Court over the Daman and Diu Territory. Delhi has a High Court since 1966. Article 242—Indian Constitution (Coorg) 1956 Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act repealed.

What is the difference between a States and Union Territories?

State  Union Territory 
States have independent governments. State governments make laws. Union territories are subnational entities governed by the federal government. The Indian federal government has complete authority over the union territories it has established.
There is a strong federal link between the federal government and the states. Both the legislative and executive branches are split up. All legislative and executive authority in Union territories is vested in the Union itself due to the territory’s unitary relationship with the central government.
The governor serves as the state’s official chief executive. As the union territory’s chief executive, India’s president oversees all operations.
An elected prime minister is responsible for running the country. The president appoints an administrator to oversee all Union territory.
The size difference between states and territories is substantial. The United States territories are substantially smaller than the states.
States are sovereign and can do whatever they want under the framework of the Indian Constitution.  Union territories lack autonomous authority.

What Are The Two Types Of Union Territories  

Union territories in India are either legislative or nonlegislative. Delhi and Puducherry have legislatures. Union territories with elected legislatures and governments Central government direct other union territories. Except for Delhi and Puducherry, which have their own legislatures, union territories have no Rajya Sabha representation.

Jammu and Kashmir resemble Delhi and Puducherry after separation. The governor and chief minister would share administrative powers in Jammu and Kashmir under the unique provision. The legislative assembly oversees education and municipal operations, while the central government, on the Lieutenant Governor’s guidance, handles security and other matters.

Delhi, Puducherry, Jammu and Kashmir operate differently from the other four union territories in India due to their partial sovereign status and legislative assembly.

List of Union Territories of India

The 8 Union territories of India are given below:

  1. Ladakh
  2. Jammu & Kashmir
  3. Puducherry
  4. Lakshadweep
  5. Delhi
  6. Chandigarh
  7. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu
  8. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Let us have a look at each of these Union Territories in detail

Ladakh

Since 1947, India, Pakistan, and China have disputed Ladakh, a union territory in Kashmir. Ladakh borders the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east, Himachal Pradesh to the south, Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang over the Karakoram Pass in the far north. It runs from Karakoram’s Siachen Glacier to the main Great Himalayas. Since 1962, China has controlled the desolate Aksai Chin plains in the east, which the Indian government claims as Ladakh.

History Of Ladakh

Many Ladakh rock engravings show Neolithic occupation. Kampa nomads settled in Ladakh first. Mons from Kullu and Gilgit Brokpas settled later. The Kushan Empire ruled Ladakh in the 1st century. Kashmiri Buddhism reached western Ladakh in the 2nd century. Xuanzang’s accounts depict the region. Academics believe Ladakh’s original name was Mo-lo-so, Xuanzang’s word.

The Bon-practicing Zhangzhung kingdom(s) ruled western Tibet for most of the first millennium. Ladakh is said to have alternately been ruled by Kashmir and Zhangzhung. Academics identify considerable Zhangzhung language and culture influences in “upper Ladakh” (from the middle section of the Indus valley to the southeast). Ladakh-born Zhangzhung’s penultimate ruler.

Central Tibet and China fought over the “four garrisons” of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang) for three centuries starting around 660 CE. Tibet’s ambitions killed Zhangzhung in 634. India’s Karkota Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate quickly joined the Xinjiang battle. Baltistan and Ladakh dominated these conflicts. Academics deduce from Ladakhi chronicles that Ladakh’s major devotion to Tibet during this time was political rather than cultural. Buddhist Ladakh was not Tibetan.

Geographical Aspect Of Ladakh

Large territory in the northern and eastern Kashmir region, located in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and known as Ladakh.

Ladakh, big northern and eastern Kashmir region in northwestern India. Ladakh is administered by Pakistan (northwest), India (southeast), and China (northeast).

Ladakh, a southeastern extension of the Karakoram Range, spans 45,000 square miles (117,000 square km) and includes the upper Indus River valley. Ladakh is high. It has high plains and steep valleys. The eastern high plain gradually recedes westward. Rupshu, a region of big, brackish lakes in southeastern Ladakh, is 13,500 feet high (4,100 metres). The Zaskar Range, northwest of Rupshu, is inaccessible due to the cold. The Zaskar River flows north and enters the Indus below Leh. In valley settlements in northern Ladakh, farmers use manuring and irrigation to grow crops (2,750 and 4,550 metres). Upland valley shepherds tend flocks. Leh, Ladakh’s most accessible town, is a trading hub 160 miles (260 km) east of Srinagar.

Ladakh is chilly and arid. Fine, dry, flaking snow falls frequently and abundantly, averaging 3 inches (80 mm) annually. Tamarisk (genus Tamarix) shrubs, furze (spiny legume family plants), and other species provide firewood in valleys and sheltered areas. Wheat, barley, millet, buckwheat, peas, beans, and turnips dominate. Wool and other textiles dominate production.

All About The Economy Of Ladakh

Ladakh relies on small farms and herding. The rural economy is self-sufficient. Ladakhis pioneered small-scale farming. Ladakh also relies on livestock. Pastoral farmers raise sheep, yak, goats, and cows. Yaks produce milk, hair, hide, horns, excrement, and meat. Pashm goats produce pashmina shawls from their excellent, long-staple fleece.

Ladakh is biomass-based. Barley, wheat, and peas grow. Western agricultural practices including intensive pesticide and fertiliser use has improved agriculture and Ladakh’s economy. Ladakh exports dried apricots and Pashmina.

Ladakh once taxed products from Kashmir, Tibet, Punjab, and Turkistan. Tourism has boosted Ladakh’s economy. Tourism employees. Zanskari ponies are strong, fast, and durable, making them good transport.

Political Conditions Of Ladakh

Ladakh is governed as a union territory without a legislative legislature or elected government in accordance with the provisions of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act. A Lieutenant Governor, chosen by the President of India, heads the administration with help from members of the Indian Administrative Service.

Education and Literacy In Ladakh

Education is essential to national and personal growth, as is widely acknowledged. Education multiplies social areas including health, employment, and labour force. It boosts quality of life and growth. In the current social and cultural climate, education is a human right due to its immense significance. Therefore, human resources development must invest in education to improve people’s knowledge, skills, and ability to engage in development. Thus, education may alleviate poverty and benefit society.

At the request of the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, the Education Department has built schools in every corner to provide all school-age children in the district with teaching and learning facilities. The 2001 census reported 65.30% literacy in the district.

Free schooling, scholarships, uniforms, and other incentives have been provided at great expense to encourage underprivileged and weaker children to study.

For six years, at the behest of the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, schools of the remotest and educationally backward areas like Durbuk, Lingshet Nyoma, and Korzok have been centralised with free boarding, lodging, and teaching learning facilities. This is an honest and dedicated step toward education and will produce educated youth from the remotest corners of the district.

More About Leh

Historically, Leh (Ladakh) went by a few distinct names. Maryul or low land was the name given by some, while Kha- chumpa was used by others. It was known as Kia-Chha to Fa-Hein, whereas Hiuen Tsang called it Ma-Lo-Pho. The Brokpas of Dadarstan, who lived in what is now known as the lower Indus Valley, or Sham, is widely believed to have been the earliest settlers in what would become known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

The Mons, an Aryan people, also arrived from Karja (Kulu), initially settling in Gya before expanding to Rong, Shayok, Sakti Tangtse, and Durbuk, a region stretching from Martselang to Khaltsi. The first Mon monarch, who had been chosen by the entire tribe, made his home in the city of Gia. All of the aforementioned towns were part of his empire, and they were all inhabited by Mons. Since he was Gia’s leader, people referred to him as Gyapacho.

Jammu & Kashmir

Hari Singh, the state’s ruler, postponed deciding his state’s future during India’s partition and political integration. However, a western insurrection and an assault by Pakistan-supported rebels from the Northwest Frontier Province forced his hand. Hari Singh joined India on October 26, 1947, in exchange for the Indian soldiers being airlifted to Kashmir to fight Pakistan-backed forces, initiating the Kashmir conflict. Pakistan took over Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, while India retained Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

History Of Jammu & Kashmir

During both the Company rule (1757–1858) and the British Raj (1846–1952) in India, Jammu and Kashmir existed as a princely state known as the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. After the First Anglo-Sikh War, the Sikh Empire’s holdings were partitioned to form a princely state.

Kashmir has been disputed by India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. In August 2019, legislation downgraded Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and broke apart Ladakh into a separate union territory. The modification took effect on October 31, although various legal cases affecting its status lingered for years afterwards.

Geographical Aspect Of Jammu & Kashmir 

The union area is mostly mountainous and organised into five zones that closely resemble the western Himalayas. The lowlands, foothills, Pir Panjal Range, Vale of Kashmir, and Great Himalayas are west to east. The east is alpine and the southwest is subtropical. In the subtropical zone around Jammu, yearly rainfall is 45 inches (1,150 mm), compared to 3 inches (75 mm) in the alpine area. Light to moderate earthquakes is widespread throughout the region. In 2005, an earthquake in Pakistani-administered Kashmir killed hundreds in Jammu and Kashmir.

The narrow Jammu plains topography has interlocking sandy alluvial fans deposited by streams flowing from the foothills and a much-dissected pediment (eroded bedrock surface) topped by Pleistocene loams and loess (wind-deposited silt) (about 11,700 to 2,600,000 years old). It rains about 15 to 20 inches (380 to 500 mm) every year, mostly in heavy but occasional summer monsoon showers (June to September). Thorn scrub and coarse grass dominate the terrain, which is nearly treeless.

The outer and inner Himalayan foothills rise from 600 to 2,100 metres. Sandstones, clays, silts, and conglomerates eroded by Himalayan folding motions form lengthy duns in the outer zone. The inner zone is made of bent, fractured, and degraded Miocene red sandstones (5.3 to 23 million years old). River valleys are extensively incised and terraced, and faulting has created alluvium-filled basins around Udhampur and Punch. Pine trees replace scrubland as precipitation rises.

All About The Economy Of Jammu & Kashmir 

Services and agriculture dominate the economy. The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) rose 8.51% to Rs. 1.76 trillion (US$ 24.28 billion) between 2015-16 and 2020-21. J&K’s NSDP rose 8.61% to Rs. 1.49 trillion (US$ 20.49 billion) from 2015-16 to 2020-21.

J&K can grow huge fruits due to its abundant natural resources. J&K’s diverse agro-climatic conditions make horticulture possible. UT food processing and agribusiness (excluding conventional grinding and extraction equipment) prosper. J&K offers a great climate for floriculture and a huge variety of plants and animals. J&K offers Asia’s largest tulip garden.

J&K’s traditional handicrafts are world-renowned. The government prioritises the industry because of its big workforce and export possibilities. Carpet weaving, silks, shawls, basketry, ceramics, copper and silverware, papier-mâché, and walnut wood are among notable UT cottage industries. Cottage handicrafts employ 340,000 craftspeople.

As of August 31, 2022, J&K had 3,511.61 MW of installed power-generation capacity, including 1,866.08 MW under central utilities, 1,541.82 under state utilities, and 103.71 under private utilities (private utilities).

J&K exported US$89.77 million in FY 2022-23. (until August 2022).

Political Conditions Of Jammu & Kashmir 

Like Puducherry, Jammu and Kashmir is a union territory of India with a multi-party democratic government. India ruled it until 2019. The Kashmir conflict has shaped regional politics. The Lieutenant Governor of Jammu and Kashmir, Manoj Sinha, is the head of state, while the Chief Minister, now vacant, is the head of government. The Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, dissolved by the Governor on November 21, 2018, had legislative power. The judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative.

Education and Literacy In Jammu & Kashmir 

Jammu and Kashmir’s 5-tier education system includes primary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges, and universities. Jammu & Kashmir had 68% literacy in 2011. However, numbers have grown recently.

Christian missionaries brought modern education to Kashmir in the late 19th century. Only Maharaja Ranbir Singh’s School was state-run in 1874. J.H. Knowles founded Srinagar’s first missionary school in 1880.

All About The Capital Of Jammu & Kashmir 

Srinagar, northern India, is the summer capital of the Jammu and Kashmir union territory (Jammu is the winter capital). The Vale of Kashmir city sits on the Jhelum River at 5,200 feet (1,600 metres).

Srinagar has a large tourist economy due to its clear lakes and tall forested mountains. Several wooden bridges cross the Jhelum River, and many canals and waterways have Kashmiri shikara, or gondolas. Srinagar’s various mosques and temples include the Hazratbal Mosque, which houses the Prophet Muhammad’s hair, and the Jāmiʿ Masjid (Congregational Mosque), Kashmir’s largest mosque, erected in the 15th century. Dal Lake’s “floating gardens” and adjoining Shalimar and Nishat gardens are popular.

Puducherry

Several former French colonies in South India—Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe, and Yanam—have been merged into a single Union Territory known as Puducherry. The territory’s capital, Puducherry, is roughly 135 kilometres from Chennai Airport and is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal; it served as the original French headquarters in India. It is surrounded on three sides by Tamil Nadu and to the east by the Bay of Bengal. Karaikal is located about 130 kilometres south of Puducherry along the East Coast.

Mahe is about 70 kilometres from Calicut Airport, and it is located on the Malabar coast of the Western Ghats, which is surrounded by Kerala. Yanam is roughly 200 kilometres from Visakhapatnam Airport and is located next to the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English, and French are the most often spoken languages in this region.

History Of Puducherry

“La Compagnie française des Indes Orientales” received firman from the Qiladar of Valikondapurarm under the Sultan of Bijapur in 1673 and founded Pondicherry. French Company Official Bellanger moved into the Danish Lodge at Pondicherry on February 4, 1673. The French Company appointed François Martin as the first Governor in 1674 to convert Pondicherry from a fishing village into a prosperous port town.

The French East India Company’s Governor, François Martin, established a commercial centre in Pondicherry in 1674, which became India’s main French settlement. European firms battled for Indian commerce. In 1693, the Dutch took Pondicherry, but the Treaty of Ryswick in 1699 gave it back to France. The French firm conquered Mahe, Yanam, and Karaikal between 1720-1738. The British “East India Company” seized Puducherry from the French in 1761 and restored the French Company government by the Treaty of Paris in 1763.

The British “East India Company” seized the territory in 1793 during the French Revolution and returned it to the French in 1814. When the British “East India Company” took over India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to keep their settlements in Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam, Karaikal, and Chandronagor.

In 1948, the French and Indian governments agreed to let the people of France’s Indian colonies select their political future after India’s independence in 1947. The bureaucracy was unified with India on November 1, 1954, and French India became part of the Indian Union in 1963. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe, and Yanam became a Union Territory of India, while Chandronagor joined West Bengal.

Geographical Aspect Of Puducherry

Pondicherry is surrounded by Tamil Nadu’s Arcot district and the Bay of Bengal on the east. Karaikal is 150 km south of Pondicherry on the east coast, bordered by the Bay of Bengal and Tamil Nadu’s Tanjavur district. The western ghats of Kerala encircle Mahe town on the Malabar coast south of the Mahe river. Calicut Airport 70 kilometres from Mahe serves it. Yanam, 200 miles from Vishakaptnam, is larger than Mahe and borders the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Union territory covers 492 km2.


Yanam, Pondicherry, and Karaikal are in the Godavari, Cauvery, and intervening regions of the eastern alluvial coast. These sites are 0–150 metres high. Pondicheery is flat and 15 metres above sea level. Lagoons and lakes are here. Low hills located northwest of Pondicherry. Karaikal is flat in the fertile Cauvery delta. Rivers Godavari and Coringa split Yanam. This flat, boring area has no hills. These areas have hot tropical summers. These areas have high humidity and modest annual rainfall. Eastern regions benefit from the southwest and northeast monsoons. Mahe, is the sole union territory on the west coast, with a year-round warm climate. Backwaters define this place. Mahe is divided by the Mahe river and has some medium-height hills. Pondicherry’s Gingee and Pennar, Karaikal’s Cauvery, Yanam’s Godavari and Coringa, and Mahe’s Mahe are notable rivers.

All About The Economy Of Puducherry 

Despite a relatively high rate of urbanisation, about 35% of Pondicherry’s population still relies on agriculture and related industries for their livelihood. Over 90% of the land is under some form of irrigation. Rice, ragi, bajra, and legumes are the primary crops used for food. The fertile soil of Pondicherry also supports the cultivation of a variety of economic crops, including sugarcane, cotton, and groundnuts.

Milk distribution and production are highly regulated and dominated by cooperatives. The fishing industry provides a substantial economic contribution to the region. Both fishings at sea and fishing in inland waters are vital. Inland fishing is popular in this union territory, which features a number of lakes, tanks, ponds, and rivers. The coastline is roughly 45 kilometres long.

Several minerals are found in trace amounts over Pondicherry. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission’s exploration operations in the Karaikal region are too few and between to warrant more than a passing mention.

Irrigation is available for almost 90% of the entire planted area. Water storage facilities like tanks and tube wells are crucial to any successful irrigation system.

Political Conditions Of Puducherry 

The All India N.R. Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) have formed a coalition government to manage the Union territory of Pondicherry. Only 30 of the 33 seats in the state house are up for election. With a combined total of 16 seats, the government has a comfortable majority thanks to the All India N.R. Congress’s 10 and the BJP’s 6 seats in the coalition. With 6 MPs, DMK is the largest opposition party. Six of the candidates were selected by popular vote and are unaffiliated with any political party. Ministry of Home Affairs has selected the last three Central Government (NDA) nominees.

Education and Literacy In Puducherry 

As of 12-01-2011, the literacy rate in Puducherry was recorded at 85.800%. The previous high point was on 12-01-2001 when the figure was 81.240%, so this is an increase. From Dec 1961 to 12-01-2011, Puducherry’s Literacy Rate data is updated every decade, averaging 69.940% across 6 observations. On 12-01-2011, the numbers peaked at 85.800%, and on 12-01-1961, they dropped to a record low of 43.650%. Literacy Rate: Puducherry data from the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India is still being actively reported in CEIC. The information can be found in the table labelled “Education Sector – Table IN.EDA001: Literacy Rate” in the India Premium Database.

Lakshadweep

The 36-island chain of Lakshadweep is renowned for its tropical beauty and idyllic beaches. The words “a hundred thousand islands” translate to the name “Lakshadweep” in both Malayalam and Sanskrit.

Lakshadweep is a group of 36 islands that make up the smallest Union Territory in India, covering an area of about 32 square kilometres. There are 10 inhabited islands among the Union Territory’s twelve atolls, three reefs, and five submerged banks. The aggregate landmass of the islands is 32 square kilometres. Kavaratti serves as both the capital and largest city of the UT. Kochi, the largest city in Kerala, is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea, between 220 and 440 kilometres from all of the islands. Natural scenery, sandy beaches, plenty of flora and animals, and a relaxed pace of life all contribute to Lakshadweep’s allure.

Telecommunication services in the Lakshadweep Islands are provided solely by BSNL and Airtel. Access to the internet is provided by BSNL on all 10 inhabited islands and by Airtel on Kavaratti and Agatti.

History Of Lakshadweep

A Greek sailor in the 1st century CE mentioned a tortoise shells in Lakshadweep. All islanders converted to Islam after 7th-century Muslim missionary activities and Arab trade. The islands were acquired by a minor Hindu state on the Malabar Coast about 1100, and once the Kulashekhara dynasty of Kerala fell in 1102, the Kolathiris took over. After a Kolathiri princess married a Muslim convert in the 12th century, a separate kingdom (including Lakshadweep) was established in Kannur (Cannanore) to preserve the Keralan custom of matrilineal lineage.

If Marco Polo’s 13th-century “female island” was Minicoy Island, he may have been the first European to visit the islands. Portuguese colonised the islands in 1498. They built a fort to control trade, especially coir. 1545 islanders revolted.

In the 1780s, Tippu Sultan, the sultan of Mysore (now Karnataka), on the mainland, took possession of the northern Amindivis islands from successive bibis and their husbands. British rule over the Amindivis began in 1799 after Tippu was killed in battle. The bibi and her husband kept the other islands and received money from them in exchange for an annual payment to the British. The bibi gave these islands to the British in 1908 when these payments were continually late. In 1956, the islands became a union territory after Indian independence in 1947.

Geographical Aspect Of Lakshadweep

Banana, Vazha (Musaparadisiaca), Colocassia, Chambu (Colocassia antiquarum), Drumstic moringakkai (Moringa Oleifera), Bread Fruit, Chakka (Artocarpus incisa), and wild almond (Terminalia Catappa) are produced on the islands. Kanni (Scaevolakeeningil), Punna, Chavok, and Cheerani (Thespesia Populnea) are scattered over the island. Lakshadweep’s only cash crop is coconut (Cacos nucifera). Laccadive micro, ordinary, green dwarf, etc. Beaches have two types of seagrass. Thalassia hemprichin and Cymodocea isoetifolia. They stop beach erosion.

Marine life is complex. Cattle and poultry are common vertebrates. Tharathasi (Sterna fuscata) and Karifetu are Lakshadweep’s oceanic birds (Anous solidus). They inhabit PITTI, an uninhabited island. Bird sanctuary on this island.

Molluscan forms are economically vital to the islands. The shallow lagoons and reefs of the islands are full in money cowries (cypraea monita). Cypraca talpa and Cyprea maculiferra are also here. Most crabs are hermits. Parrot fish, butterfly fish, and surgeon fish are also abundant.

All About Economy Of Lakshadweep

The abundance of Lakshadweep Islands has given India 20,000 sq. km. of territorial seas and 400,000 sq. km. of Economic Zone Exclusive (EEZ). The lagoons’ fisheries and minerals and the Lakshadweep Islands’ EEZ are economically important.

Lakshadweep received OFC connectivity in 2020. NEC India won the submarine optical fibre cable (OFC) project in October 2021. The Rs. 1,072 crores (US$ 140.11 million) underwater OFC project will increase online education, e-medicine, and local education, employment, and business prospects by 2023-24.

Lakshadweep exported US$160,000 in FY22.

Lakshadweep had 3.27 MW of private utility-generated power capacity as of August 2022. The Lakshadweep electricity industry received Rs. 125.56 crores (US$ 16.42 million) in Budget 2022-23. NIOT, an independent institute under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), is establishing a 65kW Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility near Kavaratti, Lakshadweep. This plant will power a 1 lakh litre per day LTTD desalination plant that turns seawater into potable water.

The Lakshadweep Administration designated Wednesdays a “Cycle Day” for government employees in April 2022 to reduce pollution and the union territory’s carbon footprint.

Political Conditions Of Lakshadweep

The union territory’s bodies govern Lakshadweep’s politics and government. Lakshadweep is India’s smallest union territory. A 36-island archipelago. Only ten are inhabited.

Lakshadweep elects one Lok Sabha member. Lakshadweep (ST) is ruled by a President-appointed administrator. H. Rajesh Prasad leads. He controls Lakshadweep Police as Inspector General.

The territory has ten subdivisions. In Minicoy and Agatti, a deputy collector oversees the sub-division, but in the other 8 islands, sub-divisional officers manage development. The District Magistrate, Collector, and Development Commissioner oversee district administrative affairs. Law enforcement is backed by 1 additional District Magistrate and 10 executive Magistrates.

Education and Literacy In Lakshadweep

Since gaining their independence, the islands have flourished. In 1951, only 15.23% of adults could read and write; today, that number has risen to 87.52%, ranking third in the country. It all started with a single graduate in 1956. There are currently around 5200 freshmen, over 350 upperclassmen, 70 graduate students, 120 engineers, 95 medical students, and countless others. To date, we have succeeded in providing equal educational opportunities for all children of school age, and today, 47% of all students are female.

Delhi

New Delhi, India’s capital, is located within the city and union territory of Delhi, which is also known as the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. Delhi is located on both sides of the Yamuna River, though mostly on its western or right bank. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the east and Haryana to the west and south. A total of 1,484 square kilometres are included in the NCT (573 sq mi). There were over 11 million people living in Delhi proper in the 2011 census, and another 16.8 million people living in the NCT as a whole. The National Capital Region (NCR), which encompasses Delhi and its satellite towns Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon, and Noida, is home to an estimated 28 million people, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world (after Tokyo).

History Of Delhi

From 736 to 1193, the Tomara and Chauhan dynasties governed Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate was a sequence of five dynasties that dominated the Indian subcontinent with Delhi as their capital.

Culture flourished in the city during the Sultanate.

In 1526, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi’s soldiers at the first Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire, ending the Delhi Sultanate.

Three centuries of Mughal dominance. As the Mughal capital moved, the city collapsed in the 16th century. The fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan erected Shahjahanabad, the Red Fort, and Jama Masjid in Delhi.  The empire peaked under his rule. Revolts afflicted the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb’s death. Marathas, Sikhs, and several rulers of former Mughal provinces including Bengal, Awadh, and Hyderabad took large parts. Nader Shah pillaged Delhi. The Jats took numerous key Mughal towns south of Delhi. In 1757, the Marathas conquered Delhi and held it until 1803, when the British beat them in the second Anglo-Maratha War. The British East India Company took Delhi in 1803.

Geographical Aspect Of Delhi

Delhi is bordered by Haryana, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh in northern India at 23.38 degrees north and 77.13 degrees east. The Gangetic plains, Yamuna flood plain, and Delhi ridge divide the metropolis. The floodplain’s excellent alluvial soil makes agriculture possible, although the flood line can reach 318 metres, devastating crops. The Aravalli Hill range dominates the south, west, northwest, and northeast of the city, while the sacred Yamuna River flows through Delhi and the Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern area of Delhi. Road bridges and Metro Subways span the river.

Delhi has 1484 square kilometres, 783 of which are rural and 700 urban. 51.9 km long and 48.48 km wide. The city is in seismic zone IV and prone to earthquakes, but it has only suffered minor tremors from Gujarat and neighbouring earthquakes.

The National Capital Region was created in 1962 to develop a metropolitan region to redirect the growing population and safeguard the city’s infrastructure from excessive planned expansion.

The National Capital Region (NCR) of India is made up of four states: Delhi’s National Capital Territory (NCT), Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.

NCT is the most populous part of NCR, with 13,782,976 inhabitants. It includes Old Delhi, New Delhi, and the Indian government’s central seat. Haryana’s NCR region includes Faridabad, Gurgaon, and Sonepat, which are rapidly developing into NCR. They form NCR’s northern and western borders with NCT. Alwar, the southwest heart of Rajasthan’s NCR, does not border Delhi. Uttar Pradesh makes up most of the eastern NCR, bordered by Delhi, Ghaziabad, and the Gautam Buddha Nagar area curled out of Noida and Greater Noida.

Delhi is spatially irregular. From agricultural areas in the north to dry parched hills that branch off of Rajasthan’s Aravalli Hills in the south. The northern end is Sarup Nagar while the southern end is Rajorki. Najafgarh is west and Shahdara and Bhajanpura, significant retail centres, are east. Delhi’s southern border is Saket, its centre northern boundary is Connaught Place, and its western boundary is National Highway 8.

All About The Economy Of Delhi

Delhi has India’s 13th-largest economy. The NCT of Delhi’s 2020-21 nominal GSDP was 15.98 lakh crore (US$200 billion), growing 8.1%. 2014-15 growth was 9.2%. Delhi’s 2020-21 GSDP was 85% tertiary, 12% secondary, and 3% primary. Services grew 7.3% annually. 

Delhi is northern India’s business hub. Delhi’s PPP metro GDP is $370 billion, while its nominal GDP is $272.603 billion, making it India’s most or second-most productive metro area as of 2021.

Political Conditions Of Delhi

Delhi’s first-level administrative division has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, the council of ministers, and Chief Minister. NCT territorial constituencies elect legislative assembly members. After 1956, direct federal rule replaced the legislative assembly until 1993. The Panchayati Raj Act gives the municipal corporation civic administration. Both the Indian and National Capital Territory of Delhi governments run New Delhi. New Delhi’s municipal district houses the Indian Parliament, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Cabinet Secretariat, and Supreme Court. Delhi has 70 assembly and seven Lok Sabha seats.

Delhi’s governments were led by the Indian National Congress (Congress) until the 1990s when Madan Lal Khurana’s BJP took charge. Sheila Dikshit led the Congress to power in 1998 and was re-elected three times. The Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal overthrew the Congress in 2013 with Congress’s help. After 49 days, that government collapsed. The President ruled Delhi till February 2015. Aam Aadmi Party won 67 of 70 Delhi Legislative Assembly seats on February 10, 2015.

Education and Literacy In Delhi

The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) administers Delhi’s private schools, which teach in English or Hindi (NIOS). Delhi had 1,529,000 elementary pupils, 822,000 middle students, and 669,000 secondary students in 2004–05. 49% of pupils were female. In the same year, Delhi spent 1.58%–1.95% of its GDP on education.

Delhi schools and universities are run by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government, or private organisations. Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges, eight engineering colleges, seven major universities, and nine deemed universities in 2006.

The Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade are India’s top management colleges. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a top medical school for treatment and research. Bar Council of India-affiliated National Legal University, Delhi is a top law school. The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi in Hauz Khas is a major South Asian engineering college.

The only state universities in Delhi are Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas University of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, and National Law University, Delhi.

Central universities include Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, and Jamia Millia Islamia. Indira Gandhi National Open University offers distance education. Delhi has 16% college graduates in 2008.

Chandigarh

Indian city Chandigarh is designed. Chandigarh borders Punjab and Haryana to the west, south, and east. It makes up most of Greater Chandigarh, which includes Panchkula and Mohali. It is north of New Delhi and southeast of Amritsar.

Chandigarh, one of the first planned towns in post-independence India, is famous for its architecture and urban design.

Le Corbusier’s master plan was based on earlier plans by the Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and American planner Albert Mayer. Le Corbusier, Jane Drew, and Maxwell Fry developed most city governments and housing. At the 40th World Heritage Conference in July 2016, UNESCO named Chandigarh’s Capitol Complex a World Heritage Site as part of a global ensemble of Corbusier’s buildings. 

Since its creation, Chandigarh has grown significantly and spawned two satellite cities in neighbouring states. Chandigarh, Mohali, and Panchkula constitute a “tri-city” with 1,611,770 residents.  The city has a high per-capita income. The union territory has a high Human Development Index.  LG Electronics rated it India’s happiest city in 2015. BBC dubbed Chandigarh one of the few master-planned cities to combine monumental architecture, cultural flourishing, and modernisation in 2015.

History Of Chandigarh

Le Corbusier designed India’s first Prime Minister Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru’s ideal city is Chandigarh. It is one of India’s outstanding 20th-century urban planning and modern architecture initiatives, nestled in the Shivalik foothills.

The nearby “Chandi Mandir” temple gave Chandigarh its name. “Chandigarh-The City Beautiful” was named after the goddess of power, Chandi, and a fort, “garh,” beyond the shrine.

The city is prehistoric. Chandigarh was formerly a lake surrounded by a marsh on the gradually sloping plains. The fossils show that the habitat supported a wide range of aquatic and amphibian species. Harappans lived there 8000 years ago.

The area was part of the affluent Punjab Province until 1947 when it was partitioned into East and West Punjab. The city was designed to be East Punjab’s capital and house thousands of West Punjab refugees.

The Punjab government and the Indian government chose the Shivalik foothills for the new capital in March 1948. The city site appears in the 1892-93 District Ambala gazetteer. 1952 laid the city’s basis. After the state was reorganised on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pardesh, the city became the capital of both Punjab and Haryana and was declared a Union Territory under the direct jurisdiction of the Central Government.

Geographical Aspect Of Chandigarh

Chandigarh, part of the vulnerable Himalayan ecosystem, is situated amid the Shivalik hill ranges in the north. Kandi (Bhabhar) occupies the northeast and Sirowal (Tarai) and alluvial plains the rest. Boulders, pebbles, gravel, sand, silt, clays, and kankar create subsurface formation. The east-west seasonal rivulets Sukhna Choe and Patiala-Ki-Rao Choe drain the area. Two minor streams flow from the central surface water divide. Choe Nala begins at Sector 29 and N-Choe flows through the centre.

Chandigarh’s climate is Koeppen’s CWG: cold dry winter, hot summer, and subtropical monsoon. Weather is dry because evaporation surpasses precipitation.

Summer I (mid-March to Mid-June) (ii) Rainy season (late June to mid-September); (iii) Post-monsoon autumn/transition season (mid-September to mid-November); (iv) Winter (mid-November to mid-March). Summer is dry but rainy. The hottest months are May and June, with mean daily maximum and lowest temperatures of 370C and 250C. 440C is possible. Late June brings southwest monsoons with heavy rain.

It’s hot and humid. 700–1200 mm of yearly rainfall varies. Chandigarh’s 20-year rainfall averages 1100.7 mm. January is the coldest with mean maximum and lowest temperatures of 230C and 3.60C. Light winds blow from northwest to southeast, except on summer days when easterly to southeasterly winds blow.

All About The Economy Of Chandigarh

Chandigarh’s GSDP was Rs. 436,743.4 million (US$ 6,195.8 million) in 2019-20, up 10.52% from 2015-16 to 2018-19. Chandigarh’s 2019-20 NSDP was Rs. 3,917,275.0 million (US$ 5,557.2 million).

Chandigarh has 227.41 MW of installed power generation capacity on August 31, 2022, with central utilities contributing 169.57 MW and private utilities 57.84 MW.
Chandigarh exported dairy machines, other technical products, and medicine formulations in FY22. Chandigarh exported US$98.81 million in products in FY22. Chandigarh exports electronics, medicinal formulations, industrial gear, and other engineering goods.


Chandigarh International Airport Limited (CHAIL) announced in September 2021 that the air cargo complex, which would handle domestic and international cargo, including perishable commodities, will open on November 1. The freight facility costs Rs. 11.5 crore (US$ 1.56 million) and covers >14,127 sq. m. Housing and Urban Development, including the smart city project, received a large portion of the Union Budget 2021-22, Rs. 950.41 crore (US$ 130.57 million).
The Chandigarh Health Department reached 100% COVID-19 vaccine coverage on August 14, 2021.


To enhance air quality, Chandigarh hired 40 AC electric buses for 10 years in December 2020.
Chandigarh expanded the IT industry in the Industrial Area in April 2021. The Chandigarh Export Promotion Plan allows IT-based industries like software and electrical gear to set up shop, but direct customer interaction is prohibited. Chandigarh has various factories making agricultural equipment, tractor parts, car parts, tyres & tubes, electric metres, electronics, cables, and engineering products. Basic metal and metal alloy industries are prominent in Chandigarh. Bars, rods, rolled goods, and HR strips are metal products.


Pfizer and Ind Swift manufacture pharmaceuticals in Chandigarh’s industrial region.
About 40% of Chandigarh’s industries make tractor parts. Other factories make industrial fasteners, electrical/electronic goods, machine tools, pharmaceuticals, plastics, sanitary fittings, steel/wooden furniture, and food products.

Political Conditions Of Chandigarh

For the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana, the city and union territory of Chandigarh stands as their respective capitals. The city is a union territory, meaning it is not part of any state and is instead governed directly by the Union Government of India.

After India’s independence in 1947, the country’s first planned city was constructed at Chandigarh, which has since gained renown for its innovative buildings and layout.

Every Indian city or town typically has national (Parliament), state (Legislative Assembly), and municipal (Council) representation (Municipality or Panchayat). Despite serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana, the city-state of Chandigarh (also a Union Territory) does not have its own legislative assembly. The city government in Chandigarh is handled by the Municipal Corporation (MCC). Given its dual role as a regional and local authority in the country, the MCC is among India’s most influential municipal governments.

Education and Literacy In Chandigarh

Chandigarh education deserves praise based on statistics. Chandigarh has 190 schools: 106 government, 7 government-aided, 71 privately aided recognised, and 6 Kendriya Vidyalaya/Navoday Vidyalaya/Air Force schools. Government and private schools fare similarly. Chandigarh schools have changed under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

Chandigarh has model and non-model schools that teach in English or Hindi. All Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan performance parameters for Chandigarh schools are commendable. The Central Board of Secondary Education governs Chandigarh’s schools. NCERT and CBSE curriculum and Punjab School Education Board books for Punjabi medium are implemented.

Chandigarh’s literacy rate is 86.43%, above the national average. Male literacy is 90.54% while female literacy is 81.38%.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu are Indian union territories. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu merged to form the territory.

The Government of India announced plans for the merger in July 2019, and Parliament passed the relevant legislation in December 2019 and took effect on January 26, 2020. Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Daman, and Diu comprise the territory. After the Annexation of Goa, all four territories, including Panjim, became part of India. Goa gained sovereignty in 1987 after the Konkani language struggle. Daman is the capital, Silvassa is the largest.

History Of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

From 1520 to 1961, Daman and Diu were Portuguese colonies. The Indian Army attacked Dadra and Nagar Haveli on 11 August 1961. Portugal recognised Indian sovereignty over the areas in 1974 after the Carnation Revolution.

After Goa became a state, Daman and Diu became a union territory.

In July 2019, the Indian government suggested uniting the two territories into one union territory to eliminate redundancy and administrative costs. The Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union territories) Bill, 2019, was introduced in Parliament on November 26 and signed by the President of India on December 9. The two union territories historically shared an administrator and government officials. The new union territory’s capital was Daman. India’s government set 26 January 2020 as the act’s effective date.

Geographical Aspect Of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

Dadra and Nagar Haveli have two-fifths of forests. The northeast and east near the Western Ghats are hilly and exceed 1,000 feet (300 metres). Only the middle plains, crossed by the Daman Ganga River and its tributaries, are lowland. The Daman Ganga, the only navigable river in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, begins in Maharashtra and flows northwest toward Daman, a former docking port.

Regional climate. May averages low 90s F in summer (mid-30s C). Rainfall averages 120 inches (3,050 mm), mostly in June and September.

The Varli, Dhodia, and Konkan are the most numerous Scheduled Tribes, making up almost four-fifths of the population. These communities speak many languages, including Gujarati and Marathi. Hindus outnumber Christians and Muslims.

Most rural indigenous people farm. The terraced ground is cultivated. Rice and finger millet are the main crops. Growing wheat with sugarcane. The Daman Ganga River dam and reservoir in Gujarat have increased irrigation in the region. Native teak dominates timber production.

All About The Economy Of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

Agriculture and manufacturing dominate Dadra & Nagar Haveli’s economies. The union territory is mostly forested. Dadra & Nagar Haveli residents also work in forestry.

Most tribal people in this union territory farm. Jowar, sisam, millets, oilseeds, paddy, ragi, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, and tuvr are key crops here. Also significant are cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, and brinjal.

The government established a forestry-related industry in Dadra & Nagar Haveli. Dadra & Nagar Haveli produces a lot of Khair from Khair wood. Sisam, Mahara, Sadra, and teak are also important Dadra and Nagar Haveli forest products.

Dadra & Nagar Haveli also runs a chicken farm. Dadra & Nagar Haveli farm buffaloes, goats, cattle, and sheep. The union territory has a well-maintained veterinary facility and two veterinary centres for these animals.

Dadra & Nagar Haveli has roughly four industrial estates. Here, electrical fixtures, timepieces, detergent powder, art silk fabrics, flooring tiles, textile frames, chemicals, and more are made.

Daman, has been infamous as a heaven for smugglers in the recent past and now this menace has totally been overcome and industrial development has taken place in a considerable manner improving the lifestyle of the common people. Primarily the economy is based on fishery and agriculture but increasing tourism of late is significantly contributing to the economy of this Union Territory. Being a Union Territory, Daman enjoys a lot of tax concessions which makes it the investors favoured destination.

As the farming area is scarce, for increasing agricultural production, the area under double cropping has seen a significant increase and has been provided with adequate irrigation facilities. The net cultivated area is 5600 hectares which forms over 75 per cent of the district’s geographical area. Paddy, cereal and small millets, and fruits like chickoo, mango and banana are important field and garden crops. Cattle, buffaloes, and goats are the main livestock of the district and the milk production is over 300 tonnes. The area under forest is 186 hectares, about 2.6 per cent of the total area.

Fishing is the main economic activity. About 40 per cent of total population is engaged in this business. Prawns, Bombay duck, pomfret, ghol, dara, lobster, silverfish, shark and catfish are the main fish catch which has a good market value in the national and international market. The annual fish production in Daman is estimated to be about 4,000 tonnes with a market value of about Rs.15 crores. There are 455 fishing vessels and mechanized boats and other requisites are provided by the Fisheries Department, Daman.

The total number of registered industrial units in Daman District is 2400 with a capital investment of about Rs.2070 crores functioning primarily in the industrial estates of Dabhel, Bhimpore and Kadaiya. The important commodities manufactured are chemicals, medicines, packaging products, country liquor, IMFL and beer. Royal distilleries and Blossom Industries of Khemani Group are two state-of-the-art modern distillation and brewery plants producing quality liquor and beer in Daman. There are 8 scheduled and 2 cooperative banks operating at Daman.

Education and Literacy In Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu

The union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is devoid of higher education institutions. The region is home to a number of universities, including Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Government College, Silvassa, SSR college of arts, science, and commerce, and shrimati Devikaben Chauhan college. Shri Vinobha Bhave Institute of Medical Sciences, a government medical college in the union territory, is connected to Veer Narmad South Gujarat University.

According to the most recent census, the literacy rate of Daman and Diu is 87.10%, continuing an upward trend. There are 91.54 per cent literate males and 79.55 literate females. Daman and Diu had a 78.18 per cent literacy rate in 2001, with males at 86.76 per cent and females at 65.61 per cent.

There are a total of 188,406 literate people in Daman and Diu; of those, 124,643 are males and 63,763 are females.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a collection of islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the region includes 572 islands, of which 37 are inhabited. Around 150 kilometres (93 miles) north of Aceh in Indonesia, the area is divided from Thailand and Myanmar by the Andaman Sea.

It consists of the Andaman Islands (in part) and the Nicobar Islands, which are separated by the Ten Degree Channel (on the 10°N parallel) and measure 150 km (100 mi) in width. The Andaman Islands are located to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobar Islands are located to the south (or by 179 km; 111 miles). To the east is the Andaman Sea, and to the west is the Bay of Bengal. The island groups are interpreted as a submerged continuation of the Arakan Mountains.

History Of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The oldest artefact dates back about 2,200 years. Cultural and genetic research, however, shows that the indigenous Andamanese people may have been cut off from the rest of humanity towards the close of the Middle Paleolithic, some 30,000 years ago. Since then, the Andamanese have spread around the archipelago in a wide variety of linguistic and cultural subsets.

It would appear that individuals of many different cultures have settled on the Nicobar Islands. The native population at the time of European contact consisted of two groups: the Nicobarese, who spoke an Austroasiatic language, and the Shompen, whose language’s linguistic roots are unclear. Neither of these tongues has any connection to Andamanese.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands were the starting point for an expedition led by Rajendra Chola II (1051-1063 CE) against the Srivijaya Empire (Indonesia).


In a 1050 CE Thanjavur inscription, the Cholas give the island the name Ma-Nakkavaram, which translates to “huge open/naked land.” The island was called Necuverann by Marco Polo (12th–13th century), and the British colonial era name Nicobar is likely a corruption of the Tamil name Nakkavaram.

Geographical Aspect Of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The 8,249 km2 territory has 572 islands (3,185 sq mi). 38 live there. The islands span 6°–14° North latitudes and 92°–94° East longitudes. The 150 km (93 mi) Ten Degree Channel separates the Andamans from the Nicobars. North Andaman Island’s highest peak is Saddle Peak (732 m/2,402 ft). The Nicobar group comprises 247 islands, whereas the Andaman group has 325 islands covering 6,170 km2 (2,382 sq mi) (681 sq mi).

Port Blair, the union territory capital, is 1,255 km (780 km) from Kolkata, 1,200 km (750 mi) from Visakhapatnam, and 1,190 km (740 mi) from Chennai.

The northernmost point of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 901 kilometres (560 mi) from the Hooghly River and 280 km (170 mi) from Myanmar Mainland. Indira Point on Great Nicobar, India’s southernmost island, approximately 200 km (120 mi) from Sumatra, Indonesia.

Andaman and Nicobar has India’s sole volcano, Barren Island. It erupted in 2017. Baratang Island has a mud volcano. These mud volcanoes occasionally erupt, including 2005 outbursts linked to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The last big eruption was on 18 February 2003. Locals call this mud volcano Jalki. Nearby volcanoes The island has beaches, mangrove streams, limestone caves, and mud volcanoes.

On a two-day visit to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in December 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi renamed three islands to honour Subhas Chandra Bose. Ross Island became Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island, Neil Island Shaheed Dweep Island, and Havelock Island Swaraj Island. The PM made this declaration during a speech at Netaji Stadium on the 75th anniversary of Bose hoisting the Indian flag there.

All About The Economy Of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

India’s economic strategic cooperation hub is Andaman & Nicobar (A&N). A&N’s position in India’s strong ties with East Asia and other sea-related countries is crucial under the Act-East Policy and is projected to grow. The Island Development Agency was founded three years ago to improve state project development.

A&N will benefit from Submarine Cable’s cheaper and better connectivity and Digital India’s advantages in online education, telemedicine, banking, online commerce, and tourism.

A deep internal port draught and proposal to create a trans-shipment port in Great Nicobar at an estimated cost of Rs. 100 billion (US$ 1.36 billion) will allow huge ships and new jobs to anchor and improve India’s marine trade share.

Fisheries, aquaculture, and seaweed farming will increase together with A&N’s contemporary infrastructure.

State merchandise exports totalled US$ 1.14 million in FY22 and US$ 0.42 million in FY23 (until August 2022).

High-impact projects on 12 Andaman and Nicobar Islands focused on sea-based, organic, and coconut-based trade. Niti Aayog, a government think tank, began engaging consultants to create a public–private partnership master plan for the Great Nicobar Islands in September 2020.

The Indian government has mandated 100% renewable energy for Andaman and Nicobar.

Political Conditions Of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman & Nicobar Island’s politics and government varies from most Indian states and Union Territories. The absence of a legislature is the first striking feature of Andaman & Nicobar politics.

The Lieutenant Governor runs Andaman and Nicobar. He oversees the executive branch with department heads. Kolkata High Court oversees the state judiciary.

The Lieutenant Governor dominates Andaman & Nicobar politics. He manages the state’s legislative structure without a council. He oversees the departments. State directorates and secretariats manage the state executive. Many federal government entities boost Andaman and Nicobar’s administrative and governance status.

The state participates in general elections without a legislative council. Many political parties govern Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Andaman and Nicobar politics feature a notional state party and two very regional parties. However, national parties dominate Andaman and Nicobar’s political arena. The state has one parliamentary constituency. Port Blair’s Kolkata High Court circuit bench is Andaman and Nicobar’s highest court. The session judges in Andaman and Nicobar Islands oversee the district courts. These courts oversee the Andaman and Nicobar judiciary.

Education and Literacy In Andaman and Nicobar Islands

In the calm Bay of Bengal, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are far from the mainland. Tourists love it and its history is complex. In 2011, 1.95 lakh tourists visited the islands, up 25.5% from 2010. Tourist traffic will climb 4.5% every year through 2022. English and Hindi are the official languages, along with seven others.

Higher education is minimal yet good here. The 2011 census showed the island’s literacy rate was 86.27%, higher than the national average of 81.30%. 33.69% literacy in 1961 is remarkable. Male and female literacy rates are within 8.50%. This is achievable because primary and secondary schools, as well as other educational institutions, strictly adhere to the national education policy. In tribal communities where formal education was forbidden, a few Ashram schools have greatly increased literacy. The mainland migrant literate commercial groups have improved literacy. They drove the island’s literacy rate growth.

All About The Capital Of Andaman and Nicobar Islands 

The city of Port Blair sits at the centre of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory. Eastern shore of South Andaman Island, where it can be found. If you want to visit the unspoiled islands, Port Blair is where you need to go.

Port Blair is an island settlement where visitors can go snorkelling, scuba diving, or on a sea cruise to learn more about the area’s rich history and culture. Central Aberdeen can be found around the Aberdeen Bazaar. This neighbourhood is central to the majority of the hotels and eateries. The airport is located four kilometres to the southwest, while the main bus terminal is directly west of the bazaar. The Phoenix Bay Jetty, the primary passenger dock for ferries, is located 1 km to the northwest.

Summing Up

In conclusion, the states and union territories of India are incredibly diverse and offer a rich tapestry of history, culture, and geography. Each region has its own unique character and contributes to the overall diversity and richness of the country. The political and administrative divisions of India, with the roles and responsibilities of state and central governments, have played a significant role in maintaining the unity and integrity of the nation. Understanding the different regions of India is crucial to understanding the country as a whole and the different perspectives and issues that it faces. The states and union territories are an integral part of India’s identity and the country’s continued growth and development.

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